Monday, February 24, 2020
Hate speech - Essay Example Hate speech has far-reaching impacts on the dignity, sense of security and social status for victims which are the main reasons for developing laws. Examples of hate speech include pictures published in newspapers showing the lynching of an African child and intimate gay men. Both incidences had underlying intimidation on the two groups of people. Hate speech is a real issue experienced in the society today and there is the need to control it due to the undesirable consequences on the victims. The modern world comprises of wide interactions of people from different backgrounds due to globalization and development of the internet, news media and other social interaction networks. Moreover, there are increased gadgets used by people to interact with others worldwide such as computers and mobile phones. Through these media, people express their freedom of speech provided for in many countries and share their views on issues in life (Weber, 2014). Some views are interesting, well intended and promote peace as well as peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness. However, other views expressed could be undesirable for a group of people or individuals. As a result, these views may trigger harsh responses and action of law. Undesirable views expressed towards an individual or a group of people that could potentially cause harm would be regarded as hat ed speech. This essay will describe the concept of hate speech and then illustrate it using an example from the news media. According to Weber (2014) there is no a common definition of hate speech acceptable in all societies and different countries have varying description for the content regarded as hate speech. Nevertheless, almost all countries recognize the presence of hate speech among the residents and have formulated laws to curb the practice. One of the used definitions used was developed by the
Saturday, February 8, 2020
'Visual Learners' Essay Writing Tips'Visual Learners' essay writing tips are essential in writing an effective essay. It will make the writer stick to his theme and not get distracted by the plot of the story. Visual learners are the potential writers who are engaged with their thoughts and get immersed in it. You can write well if you put in these steps:o Read the basic steps on how to read the visual learners. Visual learners are very hard to read, so when writing a response they will make you realize that you are using words wrongly. Also, many of them like to watch a movie, so you should do some research on them, to avoid losing your word in their brain. Before writing, make sure that the reader is totally absorbed with what you are saying. As soon as they move away from the story, you should close the paragraph, immediately.o Learn how to recognize different visual learners so that you will be able to write well to them. Make sure that you relate your writing to the theme and mo ve on. For example, if you are writing about poetry, make sure that you show them the poetry that they will not understand as they don't have the same angle of vision.o Research on how to communicate to the visual learners. It will help you if you write essays on topics related to them, so that they will comprehend it better.o Make sure that you don't write in a mumbling voice to the reader. They will start to connect the sentences which can be confusing for them. So make sure that you write in a clear, clear and non-muffled voice.o Never keep on using too much expository words in your essay. They will only bore the reader and make him feel discouraged and stressed.o If you feel that you cannot write well to the particular person, do not give up. Just call them for a meeting and talk to them about their needs. Listen to their concerns, put them in a room together and discuss their problems. The discussion can help you formulate the ideas that can make them understand.
Advanced Financial Reporting - Prevalence of Creative Accounting - Essay Example This report will be evaluating the reasons that give rise to creative accounting by organizations; the grounds for the nativity of this practice will also be discussed. The evaluation of the efforts made by existing standards and accounting practices in controlling and reducing aggressive accounting will be catered in the report. The levels of success achieved by regulatory bodies will also be discoursed. Increasing the complexity of accounting treatments in such a creative and aggressive way, actually results in deviation from the actual spirit of the suggested treatment. Transactions are treated with a high level of quibble and in a complex manner so as to obtain desired misrepresentation of items present in financial statements, such as assets, liabilities, expenses, revenue, and stock options. It is generally successfully applied over the transactions of inherently complex items of financial statements, for example Derivatives, Hedge accounting, leases, insurance contracts, const ruction contracts, financial instruments, impairment of assets, revenue recognition and manipulation can easily be made. Reasons for using Creative Accounting Creative accounting aims to manipulate ultimate shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth, showing high paper profits, and hiding right earning figures from stakeholders (Farlex 2011). Those who are involved in creative accounting are usually personnel having excess to accounting documents, or can influence the accounting treatments. The records and accounts are falsified and wangled as to divert the route of organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s money to individual intended pockets. There are some obvious motivations, which lead to the commencement of creative accounting by managers or directors. The business corporate and other borrowers search for capital beyond their home land; this gives rise to an increase in the foreign investment. The investors must be supported with high level investor protection measure and market integrity because there is a sig nificant gap between the investor and the borrower that increases the chances of and may lead to dishonesty (Security and Exchange Commission 2000). Creative accounting provides assistance to businesses to appear profitable and attract customers, resources, and investors. It proves to be more costly when deceptive accounting leads to drastic consequences. Methods of Creative Accounting In an organization where salaries and incentives are paid on the basis of performance (performance related pay), directors can manipulate the annual sales account by showing high sales value or reduction in the figures of liabilities as to pay themselves high remunerations and incentives. Directors can also create high provisions for remote liabilities and include under the head of assets account remote or possible future assets, this treatment of assets and liabilities will be against the bench marks described by standards but if the liability and asset heads are intensely populated then, it will be difficult to locate this non compliance. Other minor non-compliances in the financial statements can result in a material non-compliance in the aggregated form. Directors can also change the policies relating to share options and take advantages like bed and breakfasting shares. Job security concerns can also cause highly designated individuals to falsify accounts in the periods of unfavorable results. To cover up previous frauds, original accounts become compulsory to be replaced by fake accounts using creative accounti
Thursday, February 6, 2020
The Start of Academic Essay Writing Practice The academic essay writing isn't the exact same as different varieties of composing work, on the grounds that it obliges a nice measure of information regarding the theme and subject. In other words, an academic essay may be an evidence of the depth of your research procedures and the rest of the activities you've executed so you can support the content of your written output. You must be competent in the issue you're discussing in your paper. The course materials you want to speak about within an academic essay can reflect your degree of understanding about the discipline. Because many exams need you to write persuasive essays, it might be a very good concept to begin your practice with one. Even in the event the deadline is very tight, feel free to get hold of our managers. College-level academic papers can be far simpler. Essay writing is usually practiced is schools. Academic essay writing can be challenging to compose when you're not certain what they ought to incorporate. In conclusion, it would appear that assignment essays continue to get a prominent part in tertiary education as an assessment tool. The sample essays below are split into specific disciplines to help you in your writing. There are someA last minute essay writingA activities that are complete in numerous fields especially if students believe an academic essay is merely part of their requirements. The simplest way to influence the sort of an essay is to realize the writer's point of view. For instance, if you'll be asked to compose a persuasive essay, consider the fundamental building blocks that would go inside that essay's structure. There's no ideal solution about how to compose an effective essay. Lots of homework and research needs to be completed so as to earn a meaningful essay. To be able to be successful at writing essays, you will need to understand enough about this issue and just present your own thoughts rather than attempting to write the things that they expect you to write. If you're asking for a scholarship, the likelihood that you will need to compose an essay are high. Writing an outline provides you an opportunity to plan what you'll write, organize your ideas and make certain everything fits together. To put it differently, don't write just like you speak. Occasionally a great illustration of what you're attempting to achieve is well worth a 1000 words of advice! As an example, some English words are utilised to express a lot of ideas. Things You Should Know About Academic Essay Writing Practice Some people today think women ought to be given equal opportunities to work and excel in th eir careers. The main reason is that some individuals have excellent writing skills while some don't. Some people believe that teachers should be liable for teaching students to judge what's right and wrong so they can behave well. They think that schools should select students according to their academic abilities, while others believe that it is better to have students with different abilities studying together. To accomplish the job, you must apply analytical thinking to the process, which isn't always possible, if you're head over heels with college essay writing. So you'll have some source material to work with for your practice session, take a couple of minutes to do a little bit of quick, informal research through internet searches to obtain a concept of a few points on both sides of the matter. Thus, at first, it might appear very difficult, but with a little bit of practice, it is going to get simpler and easier. If you find writing painful now, you might find with a little bit of deliberate practice you will begin enjoying it within a completely different way. The Little-Known Secrets to Academic Essay Writing Practice There are hundreds and hundreds of freelance essay writing companies that are offering online services. All it requires is a slightly different strategy, some excellent ideas and practice to develop into a specialist at academic writing. If you'd like freelance essay writing sample, speak to our company that is ready to supply you with writing services. At our business, you will acquire freelance essay writing services that are customized to your requirements and requirement. Choosing our service, you will understand that studying can be simple if you gain from the aid of capable experts. Our managers are trained and trusted to deal with the most complicated tasks, and assistance with internet forms. Many poorly crafted essays are produced on account of a scarcity of preparation and confidence. Academic Essay Writing Practice - Is it a Scam? If it's possible to write a suitable academic essay, it is going to aid you greatly in your studies since you will get superior grades and earn your teachers' respect. Keep in mind that you would like to capture the experience of taking a real essay exam. You need to understand how to compose an effective essay as it is a typical foundation for a student's grade. Students need to finish their academic assignment punctually and the period of time they have is restricted. Whispered Academic Essay Writing Practice Secrets An academic letter isn't only a document that can showcase your mastery when it has to do with a distinct academic subject. It's evident that the absolute most voluminous portion of an essay is its body paragraphs since they include all of the information and evidence. At first, the book is only an assortment of pages with a cover. Once you've got the outline ready, you merely have to develop the ideas into paragraphs. Make it simp le to understand. Students have to compose essays based on the teacher's instructions or their preferred style in writing. Thirdly, you need to ensure the truth of writing.
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Understanding Research Paper Topics for Geology The entire procedure of writing a research paper can take appreciable time as there are many elements to look at. When you get a generic case of introduction in research paper, for example, you might not have to pay much. By analyzing an internet research paper example, you can learn to draft your own topic. From time to time, very good research paper topics are just the easiest ones. For this reason, you should narrow your research question. Qualitative research is a powerful method to comprehend and learn more about the meaning ascribed to a specific issue. Literature survey Thesis any research undertaking, one's objective ought to be to develop into the world's top expert. Taking into consideration the irreversible place of the methodology portion of the research paper, methodology research paper example must demonstrate the method by which the researcher will show the hypothesis or maybe to decide the issue of the investigation. Frequently, a distinction between both research types is framed with regard to using close-end questions as opposed to the open-ended ones or using words rather than numbers. There are a number of good references to assist you with research methodology and technical writing. When you compose a research paper you build upon what you know about the topic and make a deliberate attempt to learn what experts know. A research paper that concerns scientific issues is not only a free-style essay where it is possible to tell readers whatever you desire. You may even become superior examples of research paper topics to help you restrict your pick. Ultimately if your preference is to write about a topic you don't know a lot about, make sure to do thorough research before writing it. By taking a look at a well-written case of research proposal paper, you will learn that topics which are too broad can be difficult to manage as you will probably have different, and frequently conflicting, ideas on the best way to tackle the issue. After picking a particular topic, take into consideration ways to reveal it in a most meaningful way. The sources of the paper, in addition to the text, needs to be double-spaced. Some geology computer software packages utilised in geology thesis outline research needs to be cited. A research outline template is readily gettable online. To get a good idea about how to create an appropriate format and structure, you can also need to find sample research papers on Geology. In addition, don't neglect to edit your paper to ensure it is perfect. It will be simpler if you write your paper on a topic which you find interesting. To simplify, utilize the next diagram whenever you have to work on a research paper. Research Paper isn't a task for a single day. What the In-Crowd Won't Tell You About Research Paper Topics for Geology Analyzing Igneous Rocks in the Earth Discuss how it's typically formed, the forms of igneous rocks on the planet beneath the face of the Earth and their geographical significance. On-line assistance with geology research topics is offered in many firms but then in case you require reliable aid, think about working with us. What all you will need is getting the assistance from a specialist and EssaysChief is going to be the expert that you seek out. Polite enquiry concerning the worthiness of the topic he or she's considering may address the issue. You should choose a topic that you've got a wonderful understanding, and that's also intriguing. Rate what knowledge and experience you presently have on a specific topic.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Transcendentalism In Modern Life Essay 1.) The modernity of life has come to the extent where human beings are becoming mechanical and less sensitive to the physical environment. The human as a physical form, as being part of nature, as being one by nature is losing his capability to connect and feel himself as being part of it and thus he is alienated, apathetic to his surroundings. Human as a body is one true part of nature. Every physical parts of him correlate with nature. From the Walden of Thoreau, Ã¢â¬Å"A lake is the landscapeÃ¢â¬â¢s most beautiful and expressive feature. It is the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s eye; looking into which the beholder measure the depth of his own nature.Ã¢â¬ The human eye is said to be the Ã¢â¬Å"window to the soul.Ã¢â¬ The depth of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s character can be reflected thru his eyes. His eyes express sincerity about his thoughts and feelings. The lake is like the human eyes, reflecting the beauty of nature. The human eyes exude beauty. Beauty is nature. Nature is beauty. The nature and the human eyes gives all living creatures something to explore, something new and colorful that makes life worth living each day. The modern life has given us everything that is actually not part of nature. Consumerism is one thing that incites our desire to seek for alienation to nature. Endless offers of products and services that degenerates our senses, especially the eyes, to lose its depth. Thoreau laments over this culture, Ã Ã¢â¬Å" There is an influx of novelty into the world, and yet we tolerate incredible dullness.Ã¢â¬ As mentioned nature as beauty, it has so much to offer. But with the modern life of consumer culture, the beauty of nature is so much unappreciated. Modern humans are incessantly losing his ability to connect with nature. He failed to willfully discover the beauty of nature, the beauty of his own humanity because of the exceeding production for consumer goods that creates his lifestyle. The paradigm of his life based on this culture creates him in a way apart from nature. Thus the modern human life denies him self of beauty as he denies himself being part of nature and for the years to come, only nature can bring out true beauty. 2.) For a moment, the voice of the unheard, Ã¢â¬Å"I,Ã¢â¬ come to life. One cannot deny that living in oneness with nature will speak out the voice of our unsaid and ignored self. The truth about nature say tells you that life offers so much more than what you can see from the daily modern life created by superficiality of human life. It is true that nature and the human body is one. Without those gadgets around me, I came to realize that every thought and every word in my head offers me something new, something exciting. My thoughts are part of nature. With my thoughts and with my words I have come to realize that lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s essences exist in the discovery of my very own ability to receive my very own thoughts. It helped me become true to myself. Myself is true to nature. Nature is who I am. The exploration of thoughts comes like an overflowing river. I swam into the overflowing river of thoughts. It is diverse and fresh. Something is yearning to be heard and that voice is nothing else but mine. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t need anything to tell me that I am beautiful. Nothing in this consumer world would define that beauty for me Ã¢â¬â only my thoughts. I am becoming more open to this mind and bodily presence. I need not to conform to anything that nature does not give. Anything that is natural is pleasurable. Abundance is present at this very moment. I am thankful that I have everything I need to live. The less I think of the superficial, the more abundance of life is offered to me. As I perceive things that I purchased, I find out that this is going to be an endless thirst that comes merely from insecurity. Now, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to linger my thoughts when and how will I finally get this and that but now, I am becoming more and more eager to seek my humanity in the existence of nature as being part of me. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect such adventure with my thoughts is such a fun and enjoyable ride. Color I think there is so much color to what I can see now. This color of life is coming from within, a true essence of human nature, my nature. 3. ) Based on the works by Nathaniel Hawthorne, this is the question that I am posing: Why are things not what they seem to be? The greatest antagonist of life is the one that we thought it was but after all, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what it is. A great poser of something good but thoroughly evil is the most evil of all. The things that we see that possesses the character of something good hides behind this veil and yet it is actually evil. Opening our mind and heart to truth is the central message of HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s work. It seeks to remind us that when we feel we hear about the truth. Denying ourselves from feeling the things around us is a lie. A lie is usually concealed, packed well to hide itself and attack its victim to lose his will to live. A lie is traitor and it will infest itself to someone who will accommodate it. Life is created by packaging. We do not really know what is lying underneath. Because of so many ways to package something, we are usually deceived by our senses. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not that our senses take control of that ability but the human mind and heart. When one is deceived by that packaging, he is in weak control of his senses. Ã It is never easy to realize that something is not what is seems to be. Evil by nature will cover him self from seeing him as evil. Slowly it will pull you to its trap. It will pose in front of you as something good. The ability of one to feel and listen to his own faith will be the only thing that will lead him to avoid evil. Learning to listen to our senses and putting our faith into our minds and our hearts will keep us from going astray. The worst enemy will come closer to our feet as the best friend. Real human intension comes from the goodness of his intentions and not from how good he seems to be. The real test of goodness doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t depend on how good one person seem to be. What we see on the outside is usually a lie. Only our true senses kind find that truth of what is within. 4. ) Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Poetry NATURE, the gentlest mother, Impatient of no child, The feeblest or the waywardest,Ã¢â¬â Her admonition mild In forest and the hill By traveller is heard, Restraining rampant squirrel Or too impetuous bird. How fair her conversation, A summer afternoon,Ã¢â¬â Her household, her assembly; And when the sun goes down Her voice among the aisles Incites the timid prayer Of the minutest cricket, The most unworthy flower. When all the children sleep She turns as long away As will suffice to light her lamps; Then, bending from the sky, With infinite affection And infiniter care, Her golden finger on her lip, Wills silence everywhere. Nature: In this poetry, nature is described as the mother. Her children are the animals and the landscape. Her voice is heard everywhere by her children. She gives unlimited patience and love. Her voice resounds prayer to all living creatures from the one that is the most beautiful up to the very least. Like human beings, our mothers are the endless source of love. We humans are children of nature. We find nature as the endless possibility of our daily needs and resources. Ã At night her children sleep, nature is a nurturer that opens her light to the darkness of the night. Like our mothers who always keep us safe during our sleep, nature secures us from sleeping safely through the night. Ã Her motherly love is endless. She keeps the night quiet to her sleeping children. For anything that makes noise, she keeps them quiet as her every child yearns for serenity. WILL there really be a morning? Is there such a thing as day? Could I see it from the mountains If I were as tall as they? Has it feet like water-lilies? Has it feathers like a bird? Is it brought from famous countries Of which I have never heard? Oh, some scholar! Oh, some sailor! Oh, some wise man from the skies! Please to tell a little pilgrim Where the place called morning lies! Will: Here, a traveler is in search of morning. A human being signifies the traveler for life is a metaphor of journey. Morning signifies serenity. It is something that keeps us happy. The traveler is seeking serenity for it is something that he finds unattainable. He seeks the beauty in of serenity. He knows that it is as beautiful as nature. Serenity is something so mysterious to him that he questions if it is something from another place. Ã He asks a scholar, a sailor and any wise man to define what serenity is and where he can find it. Ã Serenity, as simple as it seems to be is hard to find. In every morning that we wake up, we want to seek serenity as life unfolds in our eyes. 5. ) Moby Dick by Herman Melville Nature is one of the most ultimate aspects in Moby Dick. Ishmael is the main character and he begins the journey as he rides the ship Pequod under the command of the captain Aheb. He finds out that Aheb is in search of a white whale. Ishmael learns that Aheb is seeking revenge from the white whale because it takes away his leg. Towards the end, the white whale destroys Pequod. This story is very symbolic about nature. Aheb is the ultimate example of human being who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care for nature. Human beings are sometimes insensitive of nature and tend to take control of it to the extent that he tries to even exploit it. The white whale is like nature Ã¢â¬â it keeps its beauty and mystery. When human beings bring something that aims to harm nature, it has all its powers and forces to bring back humans to respect nature. Just like when calamities happens, nature has its own way to destroy the lives that it nurtures. Aheb is one example of the modern human life Ã¢â¬â the least aware of what can nature bring to him. Like Aheb, sometimes humans think that they really can control of everything. But like the white whale, nature has its own share of mystery to respond to humans who are exploiting her. The very thought of conquering something so huge is usually the common thought of human beings. Huge bank accounts, huge houses, huge malls, huge buildings and the like. Humans seem to have created a huge world about the superficial and the material. But after all, nature is still something bigger than what it seems to be. As humans try to conquer nature against the world that he is trying to build, nature is going back to regain its power and remind humans that he is only a part of nature. Nature has its means to give birth to the life that humans are slowly taking. The only thing that humans can take from nature is what it can also get back. Nature provides its laws for humans to obey and only obey. 6.) From the Great Lawsuit: Ã¢â¬Å"it is a built-in necessity of human nature to express itself, that self-expression, like self-development, is one of the purposes of life itself. [Transcendentalism] insists, first, that the well-being of the individualÃ¢â¬âof all the individualsÃ¢â¬âis the basic purpose and ultimate justification for all social organizations and second that autonomous individuals cannot exist apart from others. Transcendentalism believes that the purpose of education is to facilitate the self-development of each individual. The political trajectory of transcendentalism begins in philosophical freedom and ends in democratic individualism.Ã¢â¬ This tells us that humans are entitled to express himself and this is they way he finds himself. His well-being can be found only within himself. Every human has the power to build himself through the power of his thoughts. It is considerably his most wonderful ability for it is something that is constantly and ever growing. Self-expression is one integral human activity that makes him aware of himself. When one is aware of who he is, he knows what he wants and he knows what he can do. Self-expression to human beings is a basic necessity. However, an individual cannot exist only by himself. He also needs the help of others. Transcendentalism emphasizes that an individual needs to believe himself in order to create harmony with others. Although humans have their own right to self-expression he cannot disregard other nor destroy others by this will of self-expression. For example, a person can ridicule someone with the intentions of pulling him down and his only reason is self-expression. That is not self-expression it is more like self-disdain. Transcendentalism points that education is the foundation of human thought and how human will create the world around him. The human mind is complex and therefore has the ability to create and recreate his world as well as his future. Education is not simply just going to school. It is more like becoming aware of what the world is. Education allows human beings to explore his thoughts and the end of this is for him to explore the world and what he can do to live his life. Ã Political trajectory of transcendentalism roots from the will of a human to question that is everything around him. His quest for answers in this life is his sole freedom to do. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Adams, Stephen, and Donald A. Ross. Revising Mytholo gies: The Composition of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Major Works. Char lottesville, Va., 1988. Anderson, Charles R. The Magic Circle of Walden. New York, 1968. Buell, Lawrence. The Environmental Imagination: Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture. Cambridge, Mass., 1995. Burbick, Joan. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Alternate History: Changing Perspectives on Nature, Culture, and Language. Philadelphia, 1987. Cameron, Sharon. Writing Nature: Henry ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Jour nal. New York, 1985. Cavell, Stanley. The Senses of Walden. San Francisco, 1981. Dickinson, Emily. The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Boston: Little, Brown, 1924; Bartleby.com, 2000. www.bartleby.com/113/. Fuller-Ossoli, Margaret. Woman in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Greenwood Press, reprint 1968. Golemba, Henry. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Wild Rhetoric. New York, 1990. Myerson, Joel, ed. Critical Essays on ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Walden. Boston, 1988. Peck, H. Daniel. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Morning Work: Memory and Perception in A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, The Journal, and Walden. New Haven, Conn., 1990. Richardson, Robert, D. Jr. Emerson: The Mind on Fire. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995. Rossi, Alice, S. ed. The Feminist Papers: From Adams to de Beauvoir. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1973. Sattelmeyer, Robert. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Reading: A Study in Intellectual History with Bibliographical Catalogue. Princeton, N.J., 1988. Sattelmeyer, Robert. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Reading: A Study in Intellectual History with Bibliographical Catalogue. Princeton, N.J., 1988. Schneider, Richard J., ed. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Sense of Place: Essays in American Environmental Writing. Iowa City, Iowa, 2000. Shanley, J. Lyndon. The Making of Walden. Chicago, 1957. Walls, Laura Dassow. Seeing New Worlds: Henry David Thoreau and Nineteenth Century Natural Science. Madison, Wis., 1995. Electronic sources: The House of the Seven Gables Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 1804-1864 Conversion to TEI-conformant markup University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center ca. 650 kilobytes round up to the nearest 5KB This version available from the University of Virginia Library Charlottesville, Va. Copyright 1999, by the Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/ Commercial use prohibited; all usage governed by our Conditions of Use:http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/conditions.html
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Phaedo by Plato The main theme behind the "Phaedo" is Socrates' readiness and willingness to die, because of his belief of immortality. Socrates believed that when his body ceased to exist anymore, that his soul would leave and join that of the forms, where he would be eternally. Socrates believed so strongly in this, that not only did he not fear his death, he welcomed it. He believed that only when the soul separated from the body, is a person able to be truly enlightened and gain all knowledge. This "enlightenment" has been Socrates' life long goal of discovering the truth. Even at his hour of death, Socrates showed no hesitation. However, Socrates' friends did not believe so strongly, and took some great convincing by Socrates, to allow his friends to be okay with his death. The two proofs that Socrates used to convince his friends are the "Doctrine of Opposites" and the "simple and composite theory. The first proof, the "Doctrine of Opposites," is the type of proof that uses a sequence of factual statements the lead from to another to prove that one thing is the same as another thing. The "Doctrine of Opposites" uses simple references to allow the reader to easily comprehend and follow the steps of the logical process. For example, hot comes from cold. An object could not possibly be hot if it was never heated up from the state of being cold. The same holds true for the reverse of this analogy. If cold object must have at one point been cooled down from a state of being hot. Since hot and cold are opposites, this simple statement proves that things come from there opposite. Also by using this example, Socrates is trying to imply the idea of eternal existence. He is saying that cold doesn't come from thin air. It had to have come from some previous existence in some other form, which in this case would be hot. Another example that he uses is the asleep and awake analog y. One would have to agree that a person could be only one or the other. If you are not sleeping, then you are awake and if you are not awake then you have to be asleep. This example further proves that you can only be one of something or the other, its opposite, but you must be one of them.