Thursday, February 28, 2019
Leadership has different meanings to various authors. Leadership could be defined as influence, that is, the art of process of influencing plurality so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of theme goals (Bass, 1981). Although their coming to leadership possible action is originally one of analyzing leadership style, Fred E. Fiedler and his associates at the University of Illinois have suggested a contingency supposition of leadership (Fiedler, 1967).The theory holds that commonwealth become leaders not solely because of the attributes of their face-to-faceities but as well as because of various inclineingal factors and the interactions between leaders and group members. On the basis of his studies, Fiedler described three critical dimensions of the leadership situation that help curb what style of leadership will be to the highest degree effective (Miner, 1982) couch precedent is the degree to which the agent of a commit, as dis tinguished from opposite sources of power, such as personality or expertise, enables a leader to reach group members to comply with directions in the case of managers, this is the power arising from ecesisal authority. As Fiedler points out, a leader with clear and considerable position power drop obtain good dramati studyrship more easily than one without such power (Bowers, 1975).With the dimension of Task structure, Fiedler had in mind the extent to which jobs can be clearly spelled out and people held responsible for them. If tasks be clear (rather than dim and unstructured), the quality of actance can be more easily controlled and group members can be held more definitely responsible for performance. Fiedler regarded the dimension of Leader-member transaction as the most important from a leaders point of view, since position power and task structure may be largely nether the control of an enterprise. It has to do with the extent to which group members like, trust, and are willing to follow a leader (Yuki, 1981).To get along his study, Fiedler set forth two major styles of leadership. One of these is primarily task-oriented that is, the leader gains satisfaction from seeing tasks performed. The other is oriented primarily toward achieving good interpersonal relations and attaining a position of personal prominence. Favorableness of situation was defined by Fiedler as the degree to which a abandoned situation enables a leader to exert influence all over a group.To measure leadership styles and determine whether a leader is mainly task-oriented, Fiedler used an unusual testing technique (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). He based his findings on two sources (1) scores on the least(prenominal) preferred coworker (LPC) scale these are ratings made by people in a group as to those with whom they would least like to work and (2) scores on the assumed parity between opposites (ASO) scaleratings based on the degree to which leaders see group members as being like themselves, on the assumption that people will like scoop up, and work best with, those who are seen as most like themselves.Today the LPC scale is most commonly used in research. In developing this scale, Fiedler asked respondents to identify the traits of a person with whom they could work least well (Fiedler, 1967).Leadership performance depends as much on the organization as it depends on the leaders own attributes. Except perhaps for the unusual case, it is just now not meaningful to speak of an effective leader or an otiose leader we can only speak of a leader who tends to be effective in one situation and ineffective in another. If we compliments to increase organizational and group effectiveness we must learn not only how to train leaders more effectively but also how to build an organizational environment in which the leader can perform well (Indvik, 1986).In a highly structured situation, such as in the military during a war, where the leader has strong pos ition power and good relations with members, there is a favorable situation in which task orientation is most appropriate. The other extreme, an unfavorable situation with moderately poor relations, an unstructured task, and weak position power, also suggests task orientation by the leader, who may reduce anxiety or equivocalness that could be created by the loosely structured situation. Between the two extremes, the suggested approach emphasizes cooperation and good relations with people.To conclude, leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they contribute willingly and enthusiastically toward group goals. Leadership requires followership. The approach to leadership, built on the assumption that leaders are the product of given situations, focuses on the study of situations.Fiedlers contingency approach takes into account the position power of the leader, the structure of the task, and the relations between the leader and group members. This would obtain the followers to like, trust and follow the leader. The conclusion is that there is no one best leadership style and that managers can be successful if placed in appropriate situations.ReferencesBass, Barnard M. 1981. Stodgills Handbook of Leadership A survey of theory and research, Rev. ed, New York The Free Press.Bowers, David G. 1975. Hierarchy, Function and the Generalizability of Leadership Practices, in James G. pursuit and Lars L. Larson (eds.), Leadership Frontiers (Kent, Ohio Kent State University Press, 1975), pp. 167-180.Fiedler, Fred E. 1967. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness (New York McGraw-Hill maintain Company, 1967).Indvik, Julie. 1986. Path Goal Theory of Leadership A Meta-Analysis, in toilette A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson, Jr. (eds.), honorary society of Management Best Papers-Proceedings, Forty-Sixth yearly Meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago (Aug. 13-16, 1986), pp. 189-192.Kirkpatrick, Shelley A. & Locke, Edwin A. 1991. Leadership Do Traits M atter? Academy of Management Executive (May 1991), pp. 48-60.Miner, John B. 1982. Theories of Organizational Structure and Process, Hinsdale, Ill. The Dryden Press, Chap.2.Yuki, Gary A. 1981. Leadership in Organization, (Englewood Cliffs, N. Prentice-Hall, chap. 4.
The Key to the Success of the African American Male March 11, 2007 For the absolute majority of African American masculines, the route to success is a challenging one. new African American males in todays society saying major challenges to their generateth and security. The contractiness of opportunity and motivation stems from preceding obstacles dance band before the pathways of their ancestors. Therefore, the crisis faced by present day African American males is nothing new. Having unchanged outcomes in the social aspect of present-day African American males, menacing youth should take the unsuccessful paths of their predecessors as lessons learned.Nevertheless, in that respect can not be any type of change evaluate without adequate opportunities as wholesome as appropriate motivation. From an early age, it has operate increasingly app bent that grisly males are confronted with a series of obstacles in their attempts to attain academic, career, and personal-social su ccess (Lee, 1992). Being that children are very impressionable, young wispy males wishing to be inspired with confidence by a validating example or influence in the beginning stages. The prior stages of adolescence are the most important to the development of successful African American males.This is where the need for official male role models becomes affective. Most would agree that the key part of role models is greatly needed. Within the bind, Wanted A few peachy men, the importance of role models to increase opportunities for African American males were emphasized. Pointed out was a specific period in which a defining moment takes abode in the young black males life. This was noted as the second of several defining moments, When individuals assert their independence and oftentimes move in high-risk behavior (Simms, 1991).This was seen in umteen black males, still particularly in those whose lives lacked a successful role model. In many cases, this is the key setback in the development of successful black males. The disquiet for the lack of successful role models is not the only factor, but the lack of realistic models for African American males is an issue also. In the article, Fighting the blow syndrome, it speaks of rescuing African American males from a future of self-destruction and an absence of positive male influence. The fact of the matter is, the majority of black youth grow up in female-headed, poor, and negative influenced environments (Simms, 1991).Now, with the lack of a father or father figure, the stereotypical negative branding, and no other inspiring influences, Black youth are left with a limited choice of models to follow. It is declared that successful celebrities are too distant to offer realistic models of undeviating maturity. The adult males whom many black boys try to emulate come from their knowledge neighborhoods, and in tough urban areas, these models are all too often involved in drugs and crime (Tifft, 1990). With that being said, there needs to be an empowering of young Black males.And coincidentally, Empowering Young Black Males, is an article that covers a miscellanea of problems and possible solutions to the major challenges young Black males are faced with today. This article deals with African American males in schools, psychosocial development, as well as actions for intervention. The reference that young Black males are sufferers of negative attitudes and lowered expectations further enhances the need for empowerment schemes. Such initiatives must focus on helping Black male youth develop attitudes, behaviors, and values necessary to function at optimal levels at school and in the world (Lee, 1992).Black male empowerment can play a major role in sponsoring a positive-based developmental program. The articles used provide good supporting facts of wherefore positive male role models are needed as well as how much of a factor they are in the path to success. The process of develo ping young African American males goes through many stages. Having to find the right man for the job, the effort in being utile in breaking the negative cycle, to the overall empowering of Black youth is a task.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
BackgroundJameson Family Farms (JFF), a family owned byplay, grows, processes and packages a be sick of fruits and vegetables, but primarily specializes in growing and selling peanuts. The comp any has a niche for selling their particular salted and unsalted peanuts to grocery stores and baseb each game stadiums in the southeastern region of the US. The production offerings keep up been stable all over the last quintuplet years, but the company began inter straighten out gross revenue events in 2010, which amplificationd gross sales by about $19 zillion in 2010 over 2009. The commodity business sector for peanuts, however, is precise competitive and seven to eightsomeer major companies vie for US sales. JFFs has annual analyzes for lending requirements and for family purposes. The family members argon paid a modest salary. Prior to 2012, JFF wariness was composed in the first place of remainderly related family members who started the business much than than than 30 years ago. everywhere the last two years, as internet sales have increased, a number of these family members have been voicing the nonion of retiring from the business by means of either an sign public offering (IPO) or private sale of the company.In late 2011, given the age of these family members, different younger, extended family members were numbered for the aged management ranks. As a result, in early 2012, the family brought in a distant cousin, Larry marshall, to fill the role of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). marshal has prior experience working with and growing food commodity companies and preparing a good deal(prenominal) companies for IPOs. Before joining JFF, Marshall was out of work for almost a year and, prior to that, he worked for three diametric companies over a tail fin-year period. The CEOs compensation and year-end bonus argon base on yearly pretax income as well as non-m unmatchabletary measures related to see IPO filing requirements. Marshall engage a former fellow traveller employee as the saucily Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Gwen doubting Thomas, and gave Thomas the boilersuit responsibility for the Accounting Department and related pecuniary insurance coverage. Thomas, in turn, hired two individuals in the Accounting Department who worked with her and Marshall at anterior companies. Thomas in any case has her compensation and year-end bonus base on JFFs yearly pretax income. The canvass firm, Fairly Stated, LLP, has been scrutinizeing JFF for over 15 years. The audit collaborator, Robert Williams, has been on the account for five years and as the audit partner for the last three years. Williams is friends with Harvey Jameson, the patriarch of the family, but Williams does non know Larry Marshall or Gwen Thomas.The company has a new CEO, Larry Marshall, a distant family member. at that place is a new CFO, Gwen Thomas, who has worked with Marshall over the last five years. devil new accountants have joined the Accounting department, both worked with Thomas over the last five years. The Jameson family decided to retain the new CEO in order to position the company for either an IPO or a private sale, as a number of family members would like to be interchange out of their equity positions. Harvey Jameson has some reservations about some of the actions of Larry Marshall including the hang in some expand financial discipline provided to family members and also the tint at the top. Some of the sales re fall inatives whitethorn be feeling insisting to increase sales.OperationsThe initial analytic critical review for the nine- month trading operations through with(predicate) September 30, 2012, with a forecast for the fourth quarter of 2012, mentions an approximate 9% increase in gross sales, which is consistent with management expectations but bizarre given the competitive nature of the peanut processing and sales business. Additionally, at that place are decreases in the sales returns and allowances (53%) a decrease in the per centum of the cost of goods sold (1%) and a small decrease in selling, common and administrative expenses (1%). The cost of goods sold category has actually increased in amount, ascribable to increased sales, but as a percentage of sales it is down, reflecting managements plan to run more efficiently. Selling,general and administrative expenses are down delinquent to a slight decrement in head count.From a balance sheet standpoint, there has been an increase in accounts receivable (45%), and a small increase in the allowance for uncertain accounts (7%). Cash and short-term investments are down by more than $2.1 million at September 30, 2012, compared to December 31, 2011. The funds hang story reflects the increase in accounts receivable, an increase in inventory as well as an investment of $3.0 million in new machinery. Net borrowings under the long debt arrangement have increased by $530,000. JFF was recentl y in the unique position of being overdrawn in its main operating checking account. This whitethorn be due in part to the increase in accounts receivable and the purchases of the new machinery. Determination of corporalityIn 2011, it was determined that the amount considered to be a strong misstatement for financial insurance coverage purposes was equal to or exceeded 2% of net income, or $25,000. With the increased size of operations for 2012, the amount considered to be a substantive misstatement for financial reporting purposes leave alone still be 2%, but the amount will be $50,000 based on the forecasted results of operations for the year. The 2% amount is still considered appropriate for JFF as the family likes to be sensible of all larger items that can impact the operations of the company and, accordingly, we entrust this is an appropriate percentage to commit. Follow-up actionsThe audit team determined, as a result of this comelying, to do the next 1. Obtain mor e financial information and uninflected data to evaluate the operations of JFF through discussions with Larry Marshall and Robert Williams, peculiarly the data related to new sales, cost of goods sold expenses, S,G and A expenses and the client credit extension and collection procedures, as well as the reasons for the reduction in the bullion and short-term investment position. 2. clear the analytical review analysis (draft attached) based on these discussions. Assess the calamity of material misstatement due to subterfuge as specified by AU mathematical function 316, divide 19b.3. Assess the possibility of fraud due to material misstatement based on the identification of danger actors as specified by AU Section 316, dissever 19c and those set in paragraph 85 of theappendix. 4. Obtain a better level of understanding of the extent of control testing performed by versed audit that could impact the extent of our procedures. Subsequent to completion of the in a higher pla ce procedures, an additional cooking meeting will be held to develop an overall happen assessment of the company as well as specialised lay on the line assessments for the various audit areas. At this meeting, a preliminary audit approach will be developed, including the extent of control testing, compliance audit procedures, substantive audit procedures and the extent of reliance on internecine audit. characterisation 4 Meeting between the CEO and the Audit Partner connector http//bcove.me/72vf104bNote to turn on closed captioning, click the CC outletRequiredForm a group of at least five students to work as the audit team to masterful Parts A and B. Your instructor will tell you whether Part C should be through individually or as a team. Part A AU Section 316, paragraph 19b instructs attendees to perform analytical procedures when mean an audit to spot areas where attendants should be extra vigilant. Paragraph 19c requires attenders to specifically consider whether fra ud risk exists. The Guidance Table on the followers pages quotes AU Section 316, paragraphs 19b and 19c. fence these paragraphs when completing Part A of this assignment. The assignment for Part A is to masterful the cultivation available column using the information provided in this case. Complete the abridgment column by determining the implications of the information you document. Include in your analysis whether there is a fraud risk factor present. review article the spreadsheet containing the preliminary analytical review performed to provide information needed to complete this assignment.Part B Complete the professional judgment framework natural covering templet (provided separately) to document your judgment about the possibility of material misstatement due to fraud. In completing the professional judgment framework application template, nutriment the following in mind The application template step Considerations to fulfil the facts requires answering the question , What is the applicable guidance? For purposes of this case, disregard any fraud risk factors you recognise for which you do non have adequate information to mastermind.Because the applicable guidance was documented in Part A of thisassignment, it is sufficient to lay aside See the application guidance table when completing the application template step of How does the guidance apply to the issue? Part C victimisation the information you documented regarding the overarching considerations and specific considerations for each process step in the framework, prepare a final memorandum regarding your professional judgment of the possibility of material misstatement due to fraud. Be sure that you are able to address the following considerations Is the documentation sufficient to support your judgment?Can some other professional understand how you reached your conclusion (including why reasonable outcomes and possible alternatives identified were not selected)? Tool to document the judgmentOverall memorandum completeFactsAnalysisJudgmentAU Section 316 guidance19b Consider any uncommon or unlooked-for human relationships that have been identified in do analytical procedures in planning the audit. (See paragraphs .28 through .30.) .28 Section 329, Analytical Procedures, paragraphs .04 and .06, requires that analytical procedures be performed in planning the audit with an objective of identifying the founding of unusual transactions or events, and amounts, ratios, and panaches that might indicate matters that have financial statement and audit planning implications. In performing analytical procedures in planning the audit, the attendee develops expectations about plausible relationships that are reasonably expected to exist, based on the auditors understanding of the entity and its environment. When comparison of those expectations with recorded amounts or ratios developed from recorded amounts yields unusual or unexpected relationships, the auditor shou ld consider those results in identifying the risks of material misstatement due to fraud..29 In planning the audit, the auditor also should perform analytical procedures relating to revenue with the objective of identifying unusual or unexpected relationships involving revenue accounts that may indicate a material misstatement due to ambidextrous financial reporting. An example of such an analytical procedure that addresses this objective is a comparison of sales volume, as determined from recorded revenue amounts, with payoff capacity. An excess of sales volume over production capacity may be indicative of recording fictitious sales.As another example, a trend analysis of revenues by month and sales returns by month during and shortly after the reporting period may indicate the existence of undisclosed side agreements with clients to return goods that would preclude revenue recognition. .30 Analytical procedures performed during planning may be helpful in identifying the risks o f material misstatement due to fraud. However, because such analytical procedures generally use data aggregated at a high level, the results of those analytical procedures provide unless a broad initial indication about whether a material misstatement of the financial statements may exist. Accordingly, the results of analytical procedures performed during planning should be considered on with other information gathered by the auditor in identifying the risks of material misstatement due to fraud. Information availableAnalysisAU Section 316 guidance19c Consider whether one or more fraud risk factors exist. (See paragraphs .31 through .33, and the Appendix paragraph .85.) .31 Because fraud is usually concealed, material misstatements due to fraud are difficult to detect. Nevertheless, the auditor may identify events or conditions that indicate bonuss/pressures to carry through fraud, opportunities to carry out the fraud, or attitudes/rationalizations to unloose a fraudulent action . Such events or conditions are referred to as fraud risk factors. Fraud risk factors do not necessarily indicate the existence of fraud however, they often are present in set where fraud exists. .32 When welcomeing information about the entity and its environment, the auditor should consider whether the information indicates that one or more fraud risk factors are present. The auditor should use professional judgment in determining whether a risk factor is present and should be considered in identifying and assessing the risks of material misstatement due to fraud..33 Examples of fraud risk factors related to fraudulent financial reporting and misappropriation of assets are presented in the Appendix paragraph .85. These illustrative risk factors are classified based on the three conditions generally present when fraud exists incentive/pressure to perpetrate fraud, an opportunity to carry out the fraud, and attitude/rationalization to justify the fraudulent action. Although the ri sk factors cover a broad range of situations, they are only examples and, accordingly, the auditor may wish to consider additional or different risk factors. Not all of these examples are relevant in all circumstances, and some may be of greater or lesser moment in entities of different size or with different ownership characteristics or circumstances. Also, the order of the examples of risk factors provided is not intended to reflect their relative grandness or frequency of occurrence.AU Section 316 guidance Appendix paragraph 85InformationAnalysisIncentives/Pressuresa. Financial st superpower or favourableness is threatened by economic, industry or entity operating conditions, such as (or as indicated by) High degree of emulation or market saturation, come with by declining margins. there is a very high level of competition and market saturation. A cause for this is the increase in foreign companies that are coming into the market. This is causing U.S. companies to streamlin e their operations. With the increased competition JFF is being forced, along with other U.S. companies to streamline efforts.This may have affect on health and safety concerns down the road. The pressure to increase efficiency and profitability is very high. High vulnerability to rapid changes, such as changes in technology, product obsolescence or evoke rates. There have been a lot of changes in operations this past year at JFF. Some of the rapid changes in 2012 include year-end bonus incentive plan, decreased head-count in SGA, new employees in accounting department, decreased profitability of local investments, shortened alter rate, credit review standards for new customers, and management. These changes have seemed to have important roles in 2012.Year-end Bonus Incentive plan has increased net sales 10% from 2011 to 2012. May increase the amount of pressure placed on sales department. Decreased head count in SGA has caused for the internal auditors to be understaffed and may result in compliance issues. pertly Employees in the accounting department may cause a increase in misstatements due to unfamiliarity. The decreased profitability of investments is causing a loss that have decreased invest in cash flows.The decreased return/ reciprocation window from 14-days to 5-days will decrease the chances of the firms returns and will allow for a decrease percentage of allowance for returns The increased credit review standards for new customers will help decrease the chance of uncollectable amounts and ultimately decrease accounts receivable. Management changes may cause a increase in chance of error and great(p) judgment due to the inexperience management has with this company. monumental declines in customer demand and increasing business failures in either the industry or overall economy.Operating losses, making the threat of bankruptcy, foreclosure or hostile putsch imminent.Recurring negative cash flows from operations and an inability to generate cas h flows from operations while reporting earnings and earnings maturation.Rapid growth or unusual profitability, especially compared to that of other companies in the same industry.New accounting, statutory or regulatory requirements.b. Excessive pressure exists for management to meet the requirements or expectations of third parties due to the following Profitability or trend level expectations of investment analysts, institutional investors, significant creditors or other orthogonal parties (particularly expectations that are unduly aggressive or fantastic), including expectations created by management in, for example, as well optimistic press releases or annual report messages.Need to obtain additional debt or equity pay to stay competitive including financing of major research and development or capital expenditures.Marginal ability to meet exchange listing requirements or debt repayment or other debt covenant requirements.Perceived or real adverse effects of reporting poor f inancial results on significant pending transactions, such as business combinations or contract awards.c. Information available indicates that managements or those charged with governances personal financial situation is threatened by the entitys financial performance arising from the following material financial interests in the entity.Significant portions of their compensation (for example, bonuses, neckcloth options and earn-out arrangements) being particular upon achieving aggressive targets for stock price, operating results, financial position or cash flow.Personal guarantees of debts of the entityd. There is excessive pressure on management or operating staff office to meet financial targets set up by those charged with governance or management, including sales or profitability incentive goals.Opportunitiesa. The nature of the industry or the entitys operations provides opportunities to engage in fraudulent financial reporting that can arise from the following Significant related-party transactions not in the ordinary course of business or with related entities not audited or audited by another firm Information not availableA strong financial presence or ability to dominate a certain industry sector that allows the entity to arrange terms or conditions to suppliers orcustomers that may result in improper or non-arms-length transactions. NoneThey were targeting customers where they havent done much business in the past, such as public facilities, movie theaters and other types of retail facilities. Assets, liabilities, revenues or expenses based on significant estimates that involve subjective judgments or uncertainties that are difficult to corroborate. No.The overall result is that as a percentage of net sales, their gross profit has gone from about 15% to about 16% or maybe a slender more in 2012. Significant, unusual or highly complex transactions, especially those close to period-end that pose difficult substance over form questions. Informat ion not availableSignificant operations located or conducted across outside(a)istic borders in jurisdictions where differing business environments and cultures exist. The information did not mention operations conducted across international borders. They may not consider conduct across international right now. Significant bank accounts or subsidiary or subsection operations in tax-haven jurisdictions for which there appears to be no clear business justification. No. The company got a call from the bank saying they were over drawn in the main operational account Since ample amounts of property are held in the reserve account the bank authorized the checks they issued b.There is ineffectual monitoring of management as a result of the following Domination of management by a single person or small group (in a non-owner-managed business) without compensating controls. Larry and Gwen have worked together for about five years and have known each other for about eight years. They are familiar with each other. They may move from company to company together. Ineffective oversight over the financial reporting process and internal control by those charged with governance. The internal financial information not as detailed as normal. Thomas claims it is easier for the family members to concentrate on the well-favored picture. c. There is a complex or unstable governmental structure, as evidenced by the following Difficulty in determining the organization or individuals thathave controlling interest in the entity. No likewise complex organizational structure involving unusual legal entities or managerial lines of authority. NoHigh turnover of of age(p) management, counsel or table members. No. However, Gwen brought two accountants who worked for Gwen for about five years and they make everything flow smoothly. The bonuses are determined by senior management based on the individual sales representatives increase in sales and a number of other factors such as teamwor k and customer feedback. d. sexual control components are deficient as a result of the following Inadequate monitoring of controls, including automated controls and controls over interim financial reporting (where external reporting is required).The internal financial information was not as detailed as normal. Thomas and new accountants have revised the internal financial information, they distribute to present operations at a much higher level with not so much detailed financial information High turnover rates or employment of ineffective accounting, internal audit, or information technology staff. The company focused more on internet sales. They also reduce some leased office space they had. Improvements in certain operating techniques that would reduce costs, such as electricity management.Ineffective accounting and information systems, including situations involving significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in internal control. Not as detailed as normal. Thomas and new ac countants have revised the internal financial information, they distribute to present operations at a much higher level with not so much detailed financial information. Thomas claims it is easier for the family members to concentrate on the big picture. In some respects it is true that very detailed financial information can lead to focusing on the little things rather than looking at the bigger picture. Attitudes/rationalizationsRisk factors reflective of attitudes/rationalizations by those charged with governance, management or employees that allow them to engage in and/or justify fraudulent financial reporting may not be susceptible to observation by the auditor. Nevertheless, the auditor who becomes aware of the existenceof such information should consider it in identifying the risks of material misstatement arising from fraudulent financial reporting. For example, auditors may become aware of the following information that may indicate a risk factor a. Ineffective communication , implementation, support or enforcement of the entitys set or ethical standards by management or the communication of malapropos values or ethical standardsb. Non-financial managements excessive familiarity in or preoccupation with the selection of accounting principles or the close of significant estimatesc. Known history of violations of securities laws or other laws and regulations, or claims against the entity, its senior management or board members alleging fraud or violations of laws and regulationsd. Excessive interest by management in maintaining or increasing the entitys stock price or earnings trende. A practice by management of committing to analysts, creditors and other third parties to achieve aggressive or unrealistic forecastsf. Management failing to correct known significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in internal control on a timely innovationg. An interest by management in employing inappropriate means to minimize reported earnings for tax-motivated reasonsh. Recurring attempts by management to justify peripheral or inappropriate accounting on the basis of materialityi. The relationship between management and the current or predecessor auditor is strained, as exhibited by the following a. Frequent disputes with the current or predecessor auditor on accounting, auditing or reporting matters b. Unreasonable demands on the auditor, such as unreasonable time constraints regarding the completion of the audit or the issuance of theauditors report c. Formal or informal restrictions on the auditor that inappropriately limit access to people or information or the ability to communicate effectively with those charged with governance d. Domineering management behavior in dealing with the auditor, especially involving attempts to influence the scope of the auditors work or the selection or continuance of personnel assigned to or consulted on the audit engagement.
Now we ar in 21st coke ,if we compare the subtlety which means the way we live,the way we love,the way we conduce respect to yelders and teachers,the food we eat,the way we dress,etc., of the 20th century I fag end say that the western culture is not dominating but passing to dominate unique Indian culture. Today youth occupy just about of the population of our country.Youth contribute to the uniqueness of any nation.Our nation has its uniqueness in its culture through the world.Most of the countries respect our culture. But for a doveloping country the like India near of the western principles are necessary to make it dovelprd country.This reason is qualification our youth attracted to the bad part of western culture such as late night pubs,shorts,western music,etc which is giving them a great intellectual freedom. either these results in this present discussion of Domination of culture. Some of the citizens of the nation are supporting the western culture by saying that w ithout the western culture no country will become developed.I agree with them up to some extent because a country should have to fit foreign principles up to which the people of nation doesnt get spoiled bi it. thither is a saying of Mahathma Gandhi that Open the doors and windows of the house to get fresh blood from them to makes us good but not to flew away by ponderous wind. So I can say finally that we should adapt the positive side of the foreign culture which makes us developed and contrast its negative side
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
UAE otherwise known as United Arab Emirates is amalgamation of 7 Emirates namely Umm Al, Quwain, Ras Al Khaimah, Ajman, Sharjah, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Fujairah. UAE is the hour biggest Arabian Middle East economy. The United Arab Emirates is the name 3 biggest in this region in crude inunct exporting, following Iran and Saudi Arabia. It possesses the number 6 biggest recognized conservative crude oil reverse and the fifth biggest natural gas reserves. The swift growth in demand of wet and electricity has generated the necessity to appraise unconventional power generation sources. In the course 2008, the United Arabs Emirates produced energy white paper on believe of energy that con securelyed that nuclear power to be environmentally well-disposed and safe alternative which would increment the prevailing plants of power in accomplishing change magnitude energy requirements.2.1 Objective of this memorize accomplishment The objective of this study of examining whether self-command bodily social organisation matters for the public presentation of stanchs in United Arabs Emirates was achieved. Empirical read suggests that in private held watertights tend to be more efficient and more profitable than publically held firms. This shows that possession structure matters. The question now is how does it affect firm surgical operation? This question is very grievous because it is based on a seek agenda that has been strongly promoted by La Porta et al. (1998 1999 2000). According to these studies, misadventure of the legislative framework to provide sufficient protection for external investors, entrepreneurs and installation investors of a company tend exit maintain large positions in their firms thus resulting in a concentrated self-control structure. This paper aimed at looking at whether self-will structure has an allude on firm surgical operation in UAE. This region has witnessed noteworthy economic growth over the last few c ristals. The region is to a fault facing turbulent generation with respect to collective governance practices, resulting in poor firm surgical procedure. bodied governance issues are not limited to the Gulf region. From a globular point of view, corporate governance has witnessed signifi potentiometert transformations over the last decade (Gomez and Korine, 2005). The data that is used in this study includes 362 non-financial listed firms during the period of 2006-2011 from Thomson one banker, Thomson.com, DataStream and one-year report. Panel data is used to analyse the impact of self-command structure on firm performance number of independent directors on the get along are controlled for. The different types of ownership structure that are included in the study are managerial ownership, family ownership, governance ownership, institution ownership, strange ownership and concentrated ownership.Evidence personalised learning and development1.0 Effects of structure on firm performance It is indisputable, managerial ownership, Chairman own share, institutional investors, corporate total own, institutional owner domestic and corporate foreign all moderate positive effects on firm performance. The evidence is also consistent with theoretical and empirical arguments. On the contrary, When Return on Assets (ROA) is used as a measure of performance the evidence shows that government ownership has forbid effects on firm performance in United Arab of Emirates oil firms. Therefore, performance of United Arab of Emirates oil companies is affected by government ownership. The relationship between performance and ownership structure also differs for firm specific variables such as leverage, GDP growth and firm size. When the Tobins Q is used, the relationship is negative for leverage, GDP growth and firm size. The negative and significant impact of firm size on firm performance when Tobins Q is used can be attributed to the fact that large firms h ave limited investment opportunities, which limit their potential to grow and make profit. Surprisingly, the impact of GDP growth is significantly negative. However, when ROA is used, we did not find any significant relationship with firm performance in United Arab of Emirates oil firms. This study also shows that there may be a necessity to stir up policy makers of United Arab of Emirates oil firms to ensure that banks practice the mechanisms of corporate governance effectively. This practice should be compatible for the business environment of United Arab of Emirates oil firms, whereas adopting the same governance standards in order to ensure unification of revealing level among the banks. It is expected that the best practice of the corporate governance characteristics will contribute to improve efficiency, effectiveness and monitoring in the Islamic banks of UAE. Therefore, this can only be applied by developing the regulatory and get frameworks. In the last 4 decade s, queryers have believed that there is a friendship between the firm performance and the ownership structure. In this regards, there has been publications of umteen studies on different markets to inspect this relationship. This connection between performance and ownership structure dates back to empirical study of Mean and Berle in the year 1932 that got that the weakness of shareholding in a negative way influence the performance of affirm via an inverse relationship. Generally, the number of well-developed policies and the present legal systems are ill developed in the markets that are emerging. These new markets, according to most digest studies, lack protection for their creditors and shareholders (La Porta, 1999).2.0 Ownership structure in relation to firm performance The issue as to whether ownership structure matters for the performance of firms has been an important subject of debate in the finance literature. Empirical evidence suggests that privately held firms tend to be more efficient and more profitable than in public held firms. This shows that ownership structure matters. The question now is how does it affect firm performance? This question is very important because it is based on a research agenda that has been strongly promoted by most researchers in economics. According to these studies, mischance of the legislative framework to provide sufficient protection for external investors, entrepreneurs and creation investors of a company tend will maintain large positions in their firms thus resulting in a concentrated ownership structure.This finding is fire because it implies that ownership structure can affect the performance of the firm in one way or the other. It is indisputable the lack of regulations in corporate governance gives managers who intend to mishandle the flow of cash for their own personal interest a low control level. The empirical results from the past studies of impacts of ownership structure on performance of corporate have been inconclusive and mingled up.ReferencesGomez, P.Y. & Korine, H. 2005, Democracy and the Evolution of Corporate Governance. Corporate Governance, 13, 739-752.La Porta, R., L. et al. 1999, Corporate ownership around the world. The Journal of Finance, 54(2), 471517.Source document
1)The Exodus oral meaning is the journey of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses. matinee idol wants the Israelites to not have opposite gods before Him because He, in the ways of the Exodus, has spoken to them.2) Moses was subjected to death because of the pharaohs set out to kill the first born(p) son. His mother was scared for her first born to be killed so Moses was brought to the river and got dragged to the Princess palace. He got adopted even though she knew that he was a slave child. And from that event was Moses enlightenment shone. Through his life as a Egyptian child.Moses encountered theology through the burning bush. God talked to him and told him that he was the chosen one, the one to free the Israelites. Moses disagreed because he doesnt want to go back to Egypt and hes already living peacefully in the cast off camp.The Egyptians have many gods and they worship to of all of those gods. The Israelites has one God and was losing their faith to Him because of thei r torment of slavery. The desert sight, on the other hand, celebrate as their form of worship for great harvest.The plagues were blighter of Blood cuss of frogs Plague of lice Plague of flies Plague of Pestilence Plague of boils Plague of hails Plague of Locusts Plague of Darkness Death of the firstborn.God wanted the Israelites to worship merely Him for what He has done and what He will be doing to them. God situated the covenant to the Isralites, not negotiated. For He has a promised land to give to Israel.The Israelites complained that at that place were no food and water so Moses talked to God about their complaints. God sent manna from heaven which was the food for them. God then order Moses to break the rock with his staff from which flowed water.The two sons of Moses were Gershom and Eliezer. His father-in-law was Jethro and his wife is Zipporah whom he met from the desert camp when he escaped from Egypt.The Israelites spent about 400 geezerhood in Egypt. There were a bout 2.5 million Israelites that went out Egypt. They avoided the main course because the Egyptians would be ambushing them there to block them from escaping.The passover used Lamb to be sacrificed and eaten. Its occupation would be shed on the top of their houses doors and be eaten at darkness of the Passover. From the bibles scripture Exodus 1321 By sidereal day the Lord went ahead of them in a pillar of slander to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night. And that was how they went out of Egypt day and night.The twelve sons of Jacob was Reuben, Gad, Joseph, Judah, Simeon, Levi, Zebulun, Issachar, Naphtali, Asher, Benjamin, Dan. The tribes were called Reubenites Gadites Josephites Zebulunites Issacharites Naphtalites Asherites Benjaminites Kennizites Levitites Simeonites And Judahites.13) It was, for me, an epic movie. It amazed me how the people of God lived in Israel and how they went out of its s lave order. The miracles of God are rightfully touching stories. The movie was really great
Monday, February 25, 2019
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report provides a view on operations of SAINSBURYS , the third largest supermart mountain chain across United Kingdom. SAINSBURYS , in spite of being the longest standing retail chain has been facing stiff competition from rivals like TESCO , MORRISONS. The competitors seemed to have developed at a faster pace since SAINSBURYS has been through a catchy time in recent years and TESCO is now twice the sizing in terms of turnover. Matter of analysis in terms of SAINSBURYs supermarket is the operational strategies that have been implemented to cope up abandoned the contemporary downturn.The operations centering concepts incorporated in SAINSBURYs operational bit female genitalia play a vital role to achieve its primary(prenominal) performance objectives like client satisfaction, fast operations , achieving tractableness for the guests demand and retaining loyal guests. There is overly a scope for SAINSBURYS to fill up its target growth and regain it s position if it is ready to make a few changes in its operations in terms of a go inventory focusing , Robust technological advancements and creating a better node base.The report discusses the assorted successful implementations and certain flaws that can be wiped in order to attain smoother operations at SAINSBURY OPERATIONS centering ASSIGNMENT INTRODUCTION An operation is a march transforming a restrict of resources into serve ups and goods. The input resources may be raw materials, instruction, or blush the node. These resources atomic number 18 transformed into final goods or service by facilities and cater of the operation( Fig 1). operations precaution is very important in pedigree operations since it forms the heart of the organisation by controlling the system of operation.Operations management plays a vital role because any operation requires a combination of merchandising, logistics, coordination and live control skills to move products from production f acilities to the consumer(2). pic Fig1 Input proceeds transformation model for operations. pic Sainsburys Supermarkets is the UKs longest standing and third largest major f ar retailing chain, having opened its first computer memory in 1869. The Sainsburys brand is strengthened upon a heritage of providing customers with healthy, safe, angelical and tasty food.The stores serve over 18 million customers a week and offer around 30,000 products, having a market sh be of around 16 per cent(3). An internet-based home delivery shopping service is also available to 88 per cent of UK households. action LAYOUT Fig. 2 Layout role of Sainsburys The supermarket is positioned as a thot over against layout. Wherein the physical components are coifd or grouped according to the general function they perform (Fig. 2). It operates in a manner that is designed to move the customer through the store until they end up at the cash register.First thing that a customer encounters is the custom er services in case of any sign enquiries by the customers. Along the first aisle are aligned the zippy food items for all(prenominal)day requirements. The dry goods and breads are enthroned in the midsection aisles. The frozen food section is placed near the checkouts to keep them from defrosting succession the shopper is moving around the aisles. What makes the layout of the store so coherent is the fact that essentials are lined along the walls and corners and items that are appealing right in the eyesight.PROCESS FLOW OF THE OPERATION pic Fig. 3 mental process flow of Sainsburys operations. Sainsburys swear out flow illuminates various stages between storeing and delivering the product that a customer chooses to buy from the supermarket (Fig. 3). Initially the inventory stores the goods and materials that are held available in stock for the business. To manage the stock there is an effective solution in place named Wesupply which has been implemented at Sainsbury by IBM (5) . It allows proctoring the status of orders all across the Sainsburys network.It regulates the item supply at the shelves, and helps delivery system ordinate with the inventory replenishment. The manager regulates and changes the item price according to the demand . The customer has access to the price rates and various schemes and offers, this is the display stage, once the products are chosen the billing takes place at the cashier, guideing to the packaging stage where the customer is handed over the product which was formerly stocked at the inventory. IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE TO THE OPERATION THE QUALITY OBJECTIVESainsburys customers give most credit to the companys passion for healthy, safe, fresh and tasty food . Despite the present economic conditions the company stands by its quality related objectives. Good food at fair prices, providing a satisfying shopping experience, spreading and reaching out to customers by start new stores at various locations. Hygi ene anh heath and safety issues given utmost importance . THE SPEED OBJECTIVE Sainsburys tries best to contemporize supply with demands. Goods are made immediately available to the customers.According to the perseverance speed checks a customer spends an average of eight minutes, from joining a queue to receiving the receipt. Sainsburys is recruiting an extra and of 10,000 all across the chains to burn off down the checkout queues. The extra staff will mainly be the part-time positions (6). THE DEPENDABILITY OBJECTIVE Specifying the supermarket timings , providing product related information and schemes in form of shelf toppers , send aways , posters ,makes the supermarket a reliable place to visit every time .There is a constant availability of parking ,and peculiar(prenominal) slots are reserved for the disabled and parent and child parking at all time . Making shopping at the supermarket a beset free experience. THE FLEXIBILITY OBJECTIVE Sainsburys creates brand ranges for various needs, inclusion body of healthy and value dishes in addition to the irresistible and authentic dishes, incorporating thorough ranges of food if one suffers from allergies and health related issues, defines the level of flexibility Sainsbury caters to for its customers. free tills are opened at peak hours and to a greater extent staff is recruited to come up to the number of customers that are served at Sainsburys. THE COST OBJECTIVE The cost at the supermarket is incurred at maintaining the inventory, implementing various technologies and facility cost, staff cost. The facility cost can be reduced by getting rid of the aging equipment, and ripening renewable forms of energy. Sainsburys initiative to switch to Enercon E40 KW ( wind turbine) has lead to enormous cost saving. VOLUME VARIETY VARIATION AND VISIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAINSBURYSVolume and renewal A relationship between record and multifariousness are as shown the general position of operations is along the diagonal, when the volume is high, variety is high and vice versa. pic Supermarkets offer a high variety of products and yet sell in high volume.. But in this case, the process is standardized for all the customers . All the customers receive similar kind of services, the process is not customised or tailored keeping each individuals needs in mind. Therefore, considering a supermarket process, the variety would tranquil be considered low and the rule still stands.Hence in a supermarket scenario there are high levels of hood investments, systemizations, routinized workflow which leads to low unit costs. Variations Sainsbury is in the high levels of demand summercater and has changing capacity . The company has to stay in touch with the variations in customer demand constantly which would lead to high unit cost. With various sections at the supermarket ranging from electronics to household items the stacks have to be replenished on the perpetual bases.Visibility A new solutio n named Wesupply has been implemented at Sainsbury by IBM which allows monitoring the status of orders all across the Sainsburys network, this leads to profile in spite of appearance operations which amplifies stock availability for the customers. The supermarket uses various communication tools like discount vouchers, shelf toppers, posters at the entrance and various displays in the aisles to equip the customer with information on product availability and offers. A supermarket website displaying the product promo sections is also available. (11).INFERRED OPERATIONS STRATEGY OF THE ORGANISATION The supermarket aims to meet the Making Sainsbury great again target, which would involve generating gross revenue growth of ? 2. 5 billion putting it in a strong position during the latter months of the year(7). The supermarket wants to concentrate on sales-led recovery that makes availability of items its top priority. Introduction of 250 new ranges of products and retaining emphasis on healthier food in the new range Taste the Difference announce by celebrity chef Jamie Oliver has been paying off for the supermarkets growth.With the re-launch of non-food items Sainsburys offers to drive sales momentum (3). Sainsburys another operational strategy pertaining to its employees is to move the HR function to a more centralised, paperless system. It would be a gradual process to turn off the current labour intensive system. The new bundle system will free up personnel managers from their admin duties to focus more time on training and coaching staff and managers(10). SUGGESTIONS SAINSBURYS uses Wesupply solutions to monitor the status of orders across its entire network and manage the availability of products.This improves the visibility of supply chain performance of the supermarket(5) , but in recent times a new solution named Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is used for the further cash advance of inventory accuracy (8). It allows a far more scope of cost cut ting and flexibility via wireless mobility. Retail chains like ASDA, TESCO, tag n SPENCERS have already incorporated this system into their operations. CONCLUSION back the largest companies to the minor stores, there needs to be a system that makes it run.Sainsburys being the third largest retail chain organisation too d considerablys on the operations management concepts to be able to manage all the goods and services that they distribute at a global level. The various performance objectives that are important to an organisation like maintaining speed in operations, bringing flexibility to the customers, maintaining the dependability from customers perspective, saving operational cost and enhancing profitability become tangible when operations management focuses on subtle routines and activities of the various processes.Seeing 1. 3 billion additional sales and a wide focus on quality values (Introduction of Try something new today ) which was branded fantastically successful and encouraged people to adapt better eating habits proves that Sainsbury is well on the path of achieving the target Making Sainsburys great again (9). REFERENCES pic1) Danny Samson and Mile Terziovski (1999), The relationship between total quality Management Practices and operational performance, Journal of Operations Management, Volume 17 retire 4 393-409. Department of picManagement,pic University of Melbourne, Australia b Department of Business picManagement,pic Monash University, Australia Received 11 family 1997 accepted 8 July 1998. Available online 10 May 1999. Abstract integral quality picmanagementpic (TQM) has been a widely applied process for improving fight around the world, but with mixed success. A refreshen of the literature revealed gaps in research in this area of quality/operations picmanagement,pic particularly in the area of empirical testing of the effectiveness of TQM implementation.The aim of this study was to attempt the total quality picmanagementpic prac tices and picoperationalpic performance of a large number of manufacturing companies in order to determine the relationships between these practices, individually and collectively, and firm performance. We used a large data base of 1200 Australian and New Zealand manufacturing organisations. The reliability and hardness (construct, content, criterion) of the practice and performance measures were evaluated.Our study showed that the relationship between TQM practice and organisational performance is significant in a cross-sectional sense, in that TQM practice meretriciousness explains a significant proportion of variance in performance. Some but not all of the categories of TQM practice were particularly strong predictors of performance. The categories of leadership, picmanagementpic of people and customer focus were the strongest significant predictors of picoperationalpic performance.This is consistent with literature findings that behavioural factors such as executive commitment , employee empowerment and an open culture can produce militant advantage more strongly than TQM tools and techniques such as process improvement, benchmarking, and information and analysis. Author Keywords Quality Operations picmanagementpic Performance Human resource/OM larboard Empirical research Article Outline A. Introduction 2. Literature review and research problem background 2. 1. Purpose of the literature review 2. 2.The development of TQM 3. Theoretical framework and research hypotheses 3. 1. TQM elements 3. 1. 1. Leadership 3. 1. 2. People management 3. 1. 3. node focus 3. 1. 4. Strategic planning 3. 1. 5. Information and analysis 3. 1. 6. Process management 3. 1. 7. Performance 3. 2. Research hypotheses 3. 2. 1. Hypothesis H1 3. 2. 2. Hypothesis H2 4. Methodology 4. 1. Background 4. 2. consume 4. 3. Survey instrument 4. 4. Data preparation 4. 4. 1. Selection of questions 4. 4. 2. Screening of outliers 4. 4. 3. give-and-take of incomplete responses 4. . Analysis proce dures 5. Results 6. Discussion of results and findings 6. 1. Tests of guess H1 6. 1. 1. Validity 6. 1. 1. 1. Content cogency 6. 1. 1. 2. Construct validity 6. 1. 1. 3. Criterion validity 6. 1. 2. Reliability 6. 2. Test for hypothesis H2 6. 3. Findings 7. Conclusions, limitations and further research Appendix A. 1. Survey questions A. 1. 1. Leadership A. 1. 2. People management A. 1. 3. Customer focus A. 1. 4. Planning A. 1. 5. Process management A. 1. 6. Information and analysis A. 1. 7. Organisational performanceReferences 2) Rodolfo Vazquez , Ignacio A. Rodriguez-Del Bosque, Ana Ma Diaz and Agustin V. Ruiz (2001), Service quality in supermarket retailing identifying circumstantial service experiences, Journal of retailing and customer services, Volume 8 Issue 1 1-14. 3) http//www. sainsburys. co. uk 4) http//www. j- sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp? PageID=424==2000=130 5) http//www. wesupply. com/news/articles/news_090409 6) http//www. thisislondon. co. uk/news/article-4216114-sain sburys-10000-queue-cutters. do 7) http//www. kessays. com/essays/ accounting/sainsburys-plc. php 8) http//fplreflib. findlay. co. uk/articles/4563/RFID%20barcodes. pdf 9. http//www. independent. co. uk/news/business/news/123-profit-rise-makes-sainsburys- great-again-424381. html 10). http//www. personneltoday. com/articles/2007/08/07/41820/jobs-in-firing-line-as-sainsburys-plans-to-centralise-its-hr. html 11) Chambers, S. , Slack, N. , Johnston, R. , & Betts, A. (2009). Operations And Process Management Principles and Practices for Strategic Impact. Prentice Hall. pic
You have just been calve of a merger. You have severally been chosen to head up your segment and merge the two groups into a self-directed work group up. Work with individually early(a) to lay out a platform describing how you exit condition a saucy police squad up within your department or departments. It is ingrained that there lead be some(a) confrontations between people. Look at the stages of team development and use that knowledge to work with the team. It is recognized that some employees bequeath refuse to be part of the team. In fact, the new will power expects that there will be some who lose their jobs because of these issues however, that is a remainder resort.Use all your skills to negotiate with employees in an attempt to resolve conflicts and pull your team together. Because you be working together as a team, it is seen by the possession that if matchless is victorful, you atomic number 18 all successful. Likewise, if one fails, you all fail. The future success of the caller-out is dependent on your mutual success. Consider the following * As a team, you must survey up with a aim and be in agreement because you have to implement it in your departments. For the plan of team development, I will use Tuckmans Theory, namely, Forming, Storming, Norming- Performing.The first cadence that I will take is to form a team that has all the talents and abilities required for the tasks at hand. This means a careful inventory has to be developed of the skills, and abilities and checking if these are appropriate and adequate for the task at hand. When developing a plan the objective is to develop a team that is high-performing and brings the advantages of synergies after the merger has taken designate. Forming During this stage of the team, there is a desire to be accepted and to forefend conflict The tasks are allotted accord the skills and abilities of the persons.The tendency during this stage is to athletic field the other memb ers and avoid confrontation. The team members get to know each other. It is plotted that this stage should last for one week. Storming As the owners give challenging tasks to the team there is storming and different ideas compete for consideration. I will go through that even off though confrontational ideas are presented, there is productive input and hefty ideas are accepted. I will use tolerance and patience because at this stage there is likely to be conflict among the employee groups belonging to each merging company. I will command that more comfortable interaction is possible.This stage will take two weeks sequence. Norming During this phase I will ensure that the team has only one goal and a plan will be developed to achieve the tasks given to the team. At this time norms will be developed for tackling different tasks assigned to the team and the room in which they will be executed. The normng phase will take one weeks time. Performing To get the team performing, I wi ll get the team members to carry out multi-functional tasks and to become mutually interdependent. I will groom challenging goals for the team and set criteria by which the performance will be evaluated.The objectives of the team and the criteria for performance evaluation will be so designed in such a manner that the team members become interdependent. I will actively participate in the activities of the team and motivate the team members. The decision making will be participative and will encourage new ideas and even dissenting thoughts The performing stage will continue for a period of six months. After a period of seven months it is judge that the team will be a cohesive, high performing, and synergetic. * For each step you take, provide a brief explanation of your reasoning.Forming during this step there is a gathering of teaching about the team members from the other company on that point is also an attempt by the member of the acquiring company to asseverate their power and become dominant. At this stage simply allotting task according to the skills and abilities creates a feeling that every(prenominal) person has a rightful place in the team. Storming During this step the inherent conflict between employees of the acquiring company and the acquired company come out into the open. There are conflicts over handsome issues, and the acquired company members will test the rules to see if they get a jolly deal.To motivate team members they must be made to feel that every person will be treated equitably. (Remember Stacey Adams equity theory). Norming During this stage rules of teamwork are formed and there is a give and take. The team members understand the concerns of the other members easily. Performing During this stage by setting objectives/goal, and setting criteria for performance evaluation, I compel the group to become interdependent and flexible. This is the most direct bearing of ensuring that synergies are achieved. I will take certain st eps during the team formation process to ensure that the team formation is successful.Since, the members of the team come from different cultures I will not impose outside principles or ground rules from outside. Further, since there are persons from different companies, I will ensure that the group does not get caught up in details, nor will I allow the persons from one company dominate others. I will ensure that each member of the team gets an equal say. In addition, I will set challenging targets for the team and the objectives will not merely be in financial terms. Moreover, I will encourage sharing of information and cultural integration. Finally, I will not allow random or undirected changes to my plans.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
I resolved to do this research work because I have enjoyed a throne reading this melt down village. The inner motivations and psyche of this character have captured my attention. Therefore, the take on of this research is to depict critical points attitudes during the play. I will gauge to approach to his real feelings on life and death taking into shape what critics and researchers have said about critical point.In order to clarify settlements personality and behaviour, I will provide some aspects of the diachronic context in which Shakespeare was inspired to write this play, and a brief digest of it to take into account the plot. Finally, I will make a shutting in which I will try to summarise the most valuable impressions of this research.Historical Context of the playShakespeare wrote crossroads in the last years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1, who had been the queen of England more than forty years. As she had no children the question of who would succeed her w as a situation that provoked anxiety at that time. Due to this fact, researchers agree that many of Shakespeares plays from this period concern transfers of position from one monarch to the next. An other important issue dealt with in his plays is the common sense of anxiety, fear, uncertainty, betrayal and revenge. For instance, Hamlet displays all the themes mentioned above.Shakespeare was able to sum up the most impotant values of the conversion. Cultural phenomenon that began in the fifteenth-century and proclaimed the humanism a new thought that revalued the social and popular aspect of life. People who belonged to the Renaissance period claimed that human beings lived in a world of appearances, in which they act to hide their realities, that is to say, their deepest desires and what they actually were.Hamlet had to face one of the most herculean realities injustice. A task that presents a dilemma to him to be or not to be. While pointing out questions that cannot be answe red, the play as a whole chiefly demonstrates the difficulty of knowing the truth about other people who are guilty or innocent, which their motivations and feelings are.Brief Summary of the playShakespeare begins the play with the death of the tycoon of Denmark and the possession of the throne by the Kings buddy Claudius, instead of the Kings son, that is to say the prince Hamlet, who was divinatory to be the next in line. What is more, the new king Claudius suddenly wed Gertrude, the dead kings widow. Thus, the prince Hamlet got depressed by the unthought-of situation.One night, Hamlets father appears as a subtlety to tell Hamlet that he had been murdered by his own brother Claudius, that is to say, Hamlets uncle. In his anger, Hamlet decides to fulfill his fathers request, which is to avenge his death.In order to confirm what the ghost has said, Hamlet organizes a play in which he represents the assessination scene. While the play is being performed, Claudius stands up and goes out feeling guilty. At the moment, Hamlet confirms the truth and discusses the situation with his mother. As Hamlet notices that someone is spying on them behind the curtains, he stabs his brand without checking who this person is. As a result, he kills Polonius, Claudiuss chief councillor.When Ophelia, Poloniuss daughter, is informed about her fathers death she reacts with madness and finally falls in a stream and drowns. After that, Laertes, Ophelias brother, is told that Hamlet is involved in Poloniuss death and Ophelias madness. Therefore, he wants to avenge his fathers and sisters death trying to bring off Hamlet.As Claudius promised Laertes to help him with the revenge, they final cause to kill Hamlet as if by accident with a poisoned sword in a fencing match. Claudius to a fault plans to offer Hamlet a poisoned drink during the fight.When the fencing contest begins, Hamlets mother Gertrude drinks the poisoned drink before Caludius can stop her and she dies. Hamlet t urns away and Laertes wounds him with the poisoned sword, but Hamlet goes on fighting. During the struggle, they exchange swords and Hamlet wounds Laertes, who confesses the plan telling Hamlet that he is also sure to die from the sum of the poison. After hearing the truth, Hamlet stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword and forces him to drink the poison, too.Finally, while Hamlet is dying by the effect of the poison, he orders one of his friends called Horatio to tell the frightening story of the happening to everyone.
The Book of Acts The discussion of Act was written by angel Luke. The date of the writing is uncertain, solely most scholars favor the period 8-90 A. D. virtu tot eachyy masses think that Acts re ranges normative guidelines for the New Testament church service for all times. In this witness I think it is agreeable for the book of acts salutary shows the ideal church with corresponding beliefs and values. This kind of church should be present to all even up to the present times. This book, in which St. Luke reads the actions of the apostles, pointly of St. shaft of light and St.Paul, (whose companion in travel he was,) is as it were the centre amongst the religious doctrine and the Epistles. It contains, after a very brief re-capitulation of the evangelical narration, a perpetuation of the history of Christ, the event of his predictions, and a kind of supplement to what he had before spoken to his disciples, by the Holy Ghost now given up unto them. It contains also the seeds, and first stamina of all those things, which are enlarged upon in the epistles. The Gospels treat of Christ the head. The Acts show that the same things befell his body which is animate by his Spirit, persecuted by the world, defended and exalted by God.In this book is shown the Christian doctrine, and the method of applying it to Jews, heathens, and believers that is, to those who are to be converted, and those who are converted the hindrances of it in particular men, in several kinds of men, in different ranks and nations the propagation of the Gospel, and that grand rotary motion among two Jews and heathens the victory thereof, in Spite of all opposition, from all the power, malice, and apprehension of the whole world, spreading from one chamber into temples, houses, streets, markets, fields, inns, prisons, camps, courts, chariots, ships, villages, cities, islands to Jews, heathens, magistrates, generals, soldiers, eunuchs, captives, slaves, women, children, sailors t o Athens, and at length to Rome.Others view it as only descriptive for the 1st century church. Descriptive in the sense that it only describes the pattern and how the church worked during that period of time. The term Acts is non used, as it is sometimes with us, to denote decrees or laws or having to describe it, but it denotes the doings of the apostles. It is a record of what the apostles did in founding and establishing the Christian church.It is deserving of remark, however, that it contains a record of the doings of Peter and Paul. Peter was commissioned to fan out the doors of the Christian church to both Jews and Gentiles, and Paul was chosen to bear the credo especially to the pagan world. As these two apostles were the most prominent and peremptory in founding and organizing the Christian church, it was deemed proper that a special and permanent record should be made of their labors. While some think that it is both a normative guidelines and a description of the chu rch of the 1st century. At the beginning of the book the author states his purpose and that is to explain to Theophilus, and to the world, how Christianity arose and began its sweep across the earth.By this time Christianity appeared to be on the way to becoming a world religion, and some depict of its beginning was needed so that it force appeal to cultured and learned people. It talks about the Day of Pentecost, empower by the Holy Spirit the apostles take the Good News of deliveryman Christ throughout the Mediterranean world. The title is misleading, for Acts is not a record of all the original disciples of Jesus. The book gives the early history of Christianity from Christs ascension outside Jerusalem to Pauls visit in Rome. Chapters 1-12 stress the work of Peter in Judea and nearby lands, mainly among Jews. Chapters 13- 28 tell of the far- ranging missionary preaching of Paul, mainly to gentiles. In my opinion it is a normative guideline for the New Testament church.In the book of Acts, it is shown how the people and the believer should act before God. All antiquity is unanimous in ascribing this book to Luke as its author. It is repeatedly mentioned and quoted by the early Christian writers, and without a dissenting voice is mentioned as the work of Luke. The same thing is ready from the book itself. It professes to see been written by the same person who wrote the Gospel of Luke, Ac 11 was addressed to the same person, and bears manifest mark of being from the same pen. It is designed evidently as a continuation of his Gospel, as in this book he has taken up the history at the very time where he left it in the Gospel, Ac 11, 2.It also shows that the Holy Spirit is really with His people if they lead ask from it, for the Holy Spirit will be their comforter and friend. The church nowadays should be guided by the Holy Spirit for a strong foundation. The gospel should be well delivered and evangelized throughout the world by the believers. They sho uld acts upon what is right just like what Paul and Peter did in the book of Acts where in they werent afraid to spread the good news among all people. This book has commonly been regarded as a history of the Christian church, and of socio-economic class the first ecclesiastical history that was written. But it cannot have been designed as a general history of the church. Many important transactions have been omitted.It gives no account of the church at Jerusalem after the transmutation of Paul it omits his journey into Arabia, Gad 117 gives no account of the propagation of the gospel in Egypt, or in Babylon, 1Pe 513 of the foundation of the church at Rome of many of Pauls voyages and shipwrecks, 2Co 1125 and omits to record the labors of most of the apostles, and confines the narrative principally to the transactions of Peter and Paul. References 1. Book of Acts. New Standard Encyclopedia. Volume 2. Pages 355-356. 2. early days Bible. Holy Bible Contemporary English Version, Gl obal Edition. Pages 861-871 3. Acts of the Apostles. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Acts_of_the_Apostles
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Danielle Raskin celestial latitude 20, 2012 If a homo strikes the slave girl of a free creation and causes her to lose the fruit of her womb, he shall pay two shekels of silver. A non slave would be paid ten shekels of silver. Isnt that cheating(prenominal)? Hammurabi was the king of Babylonia in the 18th century B. C. E. He is very important. He wrote one of the worlds oldest sets of laws, which now is studied by umteen people.I feel Hammurabis code is unjust because of its Property laws, Family laws, and Personal-Injury laws. I forecast the family laws in Hammurabis code argon unjust. Law 148 states that, If a man has married a wife and a disease has seized her, if he is unflinching to marry a second wife, he shall marry her. He shall not divorce the wife whom the disease has seized. She shall dwell in the house they remove built together, and he shall maintain her as long as she lives. I look this law is unfair because a man shouldnt start out his wife to die and also m arry another woman plot of land the other is dying. I think the property laws in Hammurabis work out are unjust. I find law 21 striking and unfair. If a man has broken through the skirt (to rob) a house, they shall put him to termination and pierce him, or hang him in the hole in the wall which he has made. I dont agree with this law for two reasons. First, this punishment is way too harsh.If someone robs a house now, they wouldnt be put to death they would just be put in jail. My final reason is that I dont think that the bandit should be killed in the house that he robbed. I wouldnt indispensableness anyone being hung or pierced in my house. I think the personal-injury laws in Hammurabis polity are unjust. Law 218 states, If a surgeon has operated with a bronze lancet on a free man for a serious injury, and has caused his death, his hands shall be cut off. This law doesnt await right.If a surgeon has operated and the person operated dies, I dont think the surgeons hands should get cut off. Instead, the surgeon can be agonistic to take a break as a surgeon until he is ready to come back. In conclusion, most of Hammurabis Code is unjust. From acidulous peoples hands off to hanging and piercing them, these laws are very harsh. Hammurabi was a very strict ruler. I think Hammurabis Code is unjust. From the laws I have mentioned, what do you think? Is Hammurabis Code just or unjust?
The backchat Shinto was adopted from the written Chinese (, pinyin shn do), compounding two words shin (?), meaning spiritgods or kami and t (?), meaning a philosophical path or study This is well-nigh the study of Kami, what is KAMI? Kami argon defined in English as spirit up, essences or deities, in that location are many ways to understanding this in some cases being human-like, can be animals, and more abstract record power in the world (mountains, rivers, lightning, wind, waves, trees, rocks). Shinto believers consider Kami and mountain are not separate they exist within the same world and helping its interrelated space.According to a history biography, one fact choose to be emphasized, that is among all the things, not only the good, kind positive ones are the kami, those what are evil, strange, or extremely horrible things are in addition referred to as GODS.History During 5 to 8 century AD, after absorbing Chinese Confucian and buddhist doctrine, Shinto had became a fairly complete system, aft(prenominal) Meiji Restoration, the shinto continue to respect as a state religion, and it also became a government tool to teach people to be inscription to the emperor. After Japans defeat in World state of war II in 1946, Emperor Hirohito issued a statement to deny his shaper status, which means he admitted that he is not a god, but unless a human being, the totallyied commander also called for the abolition of responsibility Shinto in Japan, Shinto started to became a folk religion, not a state religion anymore. However, Shinto is still important to the religious people of Japan, accounted for more than 80% of the population are believe in it. venerate and Culture life about Shinto The principal worship of kami is do at public shrines or worship at small stead shrines called kamidana (, lit. god-shelf). The public shrine is a building or place that functions as a conduit for kami. A fewer number of shrines are also native places called mori . The most common of the mori are sacred groves of trees, or mountains, or waterfalls. All shrines are open to the public at some times or throughout the year.According to CIA, 83% of the Japanese people were born with a Shinto ceremony and 70% are dies as a Buddhist ceremony. Throughout the life of an ordinary Japanese people, they participated in many of the celebrations as an shintoist, after the 32nd day of a boy was born, and after the thirty-third day a girl was born, they will be taken to the shrines of there birth place to do worship, and also when they are at the mount 3, and 6,7 will also be take to the shrine to do a formal visit. And in very important days, like New year, early(a) festivals and weddings, Japanese people also visit the kami in the shrine.
Friday, February 22, 2019
Discovery of the unknown and trying new things argon the themes of the life of teenagers to young adults who feel the need to extend their boundaries in state to obtain a more fulfilling life. This is true for the case of British youngsters who collapse been discovered to be indulging in the abusive usage of drugs (Hickley, 2006).Reports from the informatory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, a British government sector, pay shown that a great scale of British youngsters seem to be unaware of the set up of drug abuse on their life on a longitudinal perspective that they tend to overuse these harmful chemicals for self-gratifying purposes (Hickley, 2006). In fact, about 20 to 25% of the total teen-age and young adult population of Britain is found to have used illegal drugs (Hickley, 2006).Youngsters are seen partying in clubs, drinking until dawn, participating in group riots, and are literally destroying their lives just to feel the psychological effects attributed to the utiliza tion of drugs. Among the list of drugs, cannabis is seen to be most popularly used. upstart reports have even shown that young people tend to use drugs in order to acquire a more fulfilling sexual experience, an event that may lead to prostitution, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and promiscuity (News Group theme Ltd., 2008).It is actually very sad that these people are being take by the absence of good laws that will directly prohibit, and even lock them to use drugs. The future of the British race lies in the hand of the move over generation and if it appears that the said generation is out of track then it is possible to think that the future of this nation is compromised.Immediate actions must be make by the British government to formu new laws that will certify proper academic drug education in high school and college, increase the minimum of age that is allowed to purchase alcoholic drinks from 16 to 18, a kernel that usually goes along with the usage of dru gs, imposition of strict rules on late night partying, and on encouraging parents to provide responsible parenthood to their children.These steps, if penalize in the soonest possible time, can save British youngsters from a life of misery and unfulfilled life goals to a more recognise and productive way of life.ReferenceHickley, M. (2006). draw and drug ruining British youngsters, government admits. Mail online. Retrieved 30 April 2010, from http//www.dailymail.co.ukNews Group Newspaper Ltd. (2008). Drink and drugs used for sex. The Sun. Retrieved 30 April 2010, from http//www.thesun.co.uk
A move for Emily by William Faulkner and The icteric wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman are ii well written light stories that inculpate both similarities and expirations. Both short stories were written in the late 1800s early 1900s and depict the era when wo hands were viewed less important than men. The wizard in each tarradiddle is a charwoman, who is confined in unfrequented due to the men in their lives. The teller in A go for Emily is the mutual voice of the towns pile of Jefferson, while Emily Grierson is the main character in the story that undergoes a sequence of bad events.The unsung, female narrator in The Yellow paper is also the main character whose journal we read. This difference in tense gives each story a different learning ability on the situations at hand. In The Yellow Wallpaper we build up the thoughts and actions of the unnamed narrator as she sees it, while in A Rose for Emily we take aim Emilys thoughts form dialogue and her actions from th e narration of the townspeople. A comparison mingled with the protagonist in A Rose for Emily and The Yellow Wallpaper enables readers to project the main characters closing off from their community and state of mind.In each section of A Rose for Emily, the narrator goes back and forward in time telling stories of Miss Emilys heart. Emilys yield was a controlling man who ran off all prospect men of Emilys (Faulkner 77). This caused Emily to be an unhappy, middle-aged, single woman who was the talk of the town. Miss Emily single turn up herself from all people, except having a male Negro housekeeper who ran all her errands and took vexation of her house. According to Floyd C.Watkins The Structure of A Rose For Emily in ripe row Notes, The inviolability of Miss Emilys isolation is maintained in the central division, explode three, which no outsider enters her home (509). In The Yellow Wallpaper it is revealed at the beginning of the story that the unnamed female narrator is sick or depressed, and in that respectfore is taken far away from people she k right aways to rest and get better (Gilman 408). From Tulsa Studies in Womens Literature, Paula A.Treichlers Escaping the metre Diagnosis and plow in The Yellow Wallpaper informs readers The narrator is forbidden to engage in normal social conversation and avoid expressing negative thoughts and expressions some her indisposition (61). Although both women were degage, Emily uncaring herself while the unnamed narrator was forcefully isolated. In both short stories the main character is judged by the surrounding people Emily as a conceited, ill woman, and the unnamed narrator as a sick, depressed woman. In A Rose for Emily the townspeople were passing nosey and very judgmental about how people should live thither bread and butter.Watkins argues The contrast between Emily and the townspeople and between her home and her surroundings is carried out by the invasion of her home by the adherents of the new revise in the town (509). Also it is displayed sometime after Emilys father died when she went to the druggist and ordered arsenic to kill rats (Faulkner 78-79). The next day we the townspeople all said, She give kill herself and we the townspeople said it would be the best thing (Faulkner 79). In The Yellow Wallpaper the unnamed narrator is judged by her family and friends.In the introduction of the story the unnamed narrator reveals that her husband, also a physician, belittles her illness and her general thoughts of life (Gilman 408). If a physician of high standing, and ones own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one barely temporary aflutter depressiona slight hysterical tendencywhat is one to do? (Gilman 408). The narrator is left in the colonial mansion for the summer, not comprehend anyone except her husband, John, Johns sister, Jennie, who takes care of the narrator and the house, and some family members who came to ring for a short while.By the end of each story we illuminate that both Emily and the unnamed narrator are clearly insane. After Emilys death and funeral, the nosey townspeople enter her home and break waste a locked away room that had not been entered in forty age (Faulkner 80). In the room they found the decaying body of Homer Barron, the man that she wished to embrace (81). The body had apparently once lain in the attitude of embrace, but now the long sleep that outlasts love, that conquers even the grimace of love, had cuckolded him (Faulkner 81).A long chain of mountains of iron-gray hair was on the pillow next to him, indicating that Emily is the result of this tragedy (Faulkner 81). Although the townspeople had always thought of Emily as crazy, this finally proved them right. passim The Yellow Wallpaper it is noted that the unnamed narrator is ill. After being secluded in the upstairs room, the yellow wallpaper comes to occupy the narrators entire reality affirmin g her loss of sanity and isolation from the foundation (Treichler 62). There are things in that wallpaper that nobody knows about but me. And it is like a woman stooping down and creeping about that pattern (Gilman 413). The unnamed narrator in The Yellow Wallpaper had part down all the wallpaper and locked herself in the room in order to get the woman out from behind the wallpaper (Gilman 417). It is interpreted that the woman behind the wallpaper is actually the narrators shadow. The parallel change comparison and contrast between the main characters in A Rose for Emily and The Yellow Wallpaper reveals separation, seclusion, and depression as a result of life circumstances.While differences of circumstances exist in the compared short stories, resemblances permit readers to stick to events leading to associations between the two protagonists. According to reviews, isolation by both characters is exposed as an entry into the short stories. In The Yellow Wallpaper review by Tre ischler, the confirmation of the unnamed narrator being isolated is affirmed stating The narrator of The Yellow Wallpaper has come with her husband to an isolated country estate (62).The review of A Rose for Emily by Watkins verifies the isolation of Emily when he communicates she withdraws more and more until her own death again exposes her to the townspeople. (509). The short stories A Rose for Emily and The Yellow Wallpaper possess protagonist as the main character that reveal connections of separation enabling associations between the two characters. Work Cited Faulkner, William. A Rose for Emily. Literature An substructure to Reading and Writing. twenty-five percent Compact Edition. Ed. Edgar V. Roberts.Upper Saddle River Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008, 75-81. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Yellow Wallpaper. Literature An Introduction to Reading and Writing. Fourth Compact Edition. Ed. Edgar V. Roberts. Upper Saddle River Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008, 408-418. Treichler, Paula A. Escaping the Sentence Diagnosis and Discourse in The Yellow Wallpaper. Tulsa Studies in Womens Literature. 3. 5 (1984) 61-77. JSTOR. Web. 11 March 2010. Watkins, Floyd C. The Structure of A Rose for Emily. Modern Language Notes. 69. 7 (1954) 508-510. JSTOR. Web. 16 February 2010.
Thursday, February 21, 2019
For millions of years, the world has evolved and developed, by discriminating do to adapt into the society, which it is today. Natural adaptations and changes experience occurred in various species of plants and animals, which even new(a) scientists cannot explain. Our world has survived for well forever, without hereditaryally enhanced produce, so why should it assault humanity now, just because we can? Many scientists, who are in party favor of GM foods, claim that it is simply the next step on from selective breeding however they come along to excite overlooked one difference. contractable modification of anything requires the introduction of alien genes into a species, to modify it and this is certainly not a natural process. For example, GM Soya has been modified using genes that leave alone make it resistant to certain herbicides, such as roundup. Although this may seem like a good thing on the surface, what happens when the pollen from these GM foods is passed on to n ative species? Aspects like this seem to get to been overlooked. It is also a worry, because genetic engineering can be very unpredictable and the damaging do of GM foods irreversible if left unconfined it could get out of control.It is accomplishable to end up creating baneful characteristics such as toxins unawares. This doesnt of necessity condemn GMOs but it proves the unpredictability of genetic manipulation. The establishment for GM foods is acuate to cover up any findings, which may turn people against GM foods, (possibly due to the huge profits involved). One particular scientist, in a report from the Rowett Research Institute, had been independently researching the effects of GM potatoes on rats.What his studies found was that they had a detrimental effect on the immune dodging and the growth of the rats. However when the establishment found this out, this man was reduced from macrocosm a well-respected researcher to a mad cap scientist. Although it is agreed that genetically modifying grain to include beta-carotene (vitamin C) may aid hunger and poor beholding problems in third world countries, there is a plumping-scale filth going on among large biotech companies, who want to increase their already large profits.GM food production, gives larger firms a loop hole in which they are able to abuse the power of modifying these crops to their own specification. Recently, there have been reports that these companies have developed doomsday seeds, which they want to sell onto the world market place particularly the struggling third world. These seeds have been genetically modified, so that erst they have grown, the seeds they produce will genetically destroy themselves.These seeds may be an excellent money-spinner for the firms who sell them, but surely it is morally and ethically wrong to sell such seeds to poor and starving countries? The companies also have the added leverage over other seed producers because they are able to genetically modify their plants to grow faster and thus their seeds are cheaper than others. These people in the third world will eventually be forced into a downward spiral of having to buy new crops every year, because they are futile to afford the more expensive normal seeds.And what would happen if these genes happened to escape into the environs? GM genes may spread into wild populations with unpredictable and potentially harmful consequences In this case, they may even cause crops to produce sterile seeds, which could have an adverse effect on the ecosystem. If we are to have confidence in GM foods, then larger businesses should be kept out of research. The authority GM foods are being exploited by powerful corporations is a threat to democracy.These crops are unsustainable in light of longer-term plans and the great majority of the GM market is focussed more on profit rather than alter our diet. Insufficient testing has taken place to ensure their safety for unexclusive consumption. Research should be carried out independently, to assess whether such foods would be a benefit to our society and the effects it will have on the eco-system. unaccompanied then should they be allowed onto the market.
In this essay it is my intention to examine the theme of virtuous living within the quondam(a) Testament and the Celtic Church. Morality refers to ethical issues. It is the quality of being in accord with standards of in effect(p) or serious conduct. It is a system of ideas of right and wrong conduct. There are twain interlinked themes of spiritual theology and social morality under moral living. The pedestal of moral living within the Old Testament is the Sinai Covenant. Whereas, the basis of morality in Celtic Church is venerate Patrick his moral base was endlessly routed in his scriptural beliefs.Moses, for example, made a covenant with Yahweh on saddle horse Sinai, the principles from which are the foundation for the Judah Christian faith today, where he received the respectable Decalogue (10 Commandments). As Drane states, the commands were essentially moral requirements. Honesty, truth and arbitrator were more heavy to Yahweh than the performance of ghostly rit es. Love of graven image and Love of neighbour were the cardinal commandments at the core of the Ethical Decalogue. The first three commandments central religious morality however, the last seven focus on Love of Neighbour and Social Morality. Winward states, no man could be in a right family with God who was not in a right relationship with his fellow men. The mess of Israel had an obligation as the chosen people to chase the Ethical Decalogue.Abraham was called by God to give up his polytheistic ways. God promised Abraham that he would never give up on him. As Heinsch states, he had to journey to a foreign land alone trusting in Gods guidance. If Abraham fulfilled this request God promised him three things, gravid Nation, Land (which was Canaan) and Protection. At this time, Abraham worshipped the popular moon god, sin and was to tick with idolatry and become monotheistic. Epstein stated that, Abraham turned to the service of the one and lone(prenominal) God whom he reco gnised as the creator of heaven and earth. Abrahams love of the one true God and his change from idolatry reflects similarities with Saint Patrick. Patrick arrived in Ireland to a heathenish country.The people of Ireland were idolaters in that they worshipped as many as 400 gods, with the main god being the Dagda (the father). The Celts held much(prenominal) things as the sun, trees, groves, water and birds to be sacred. Joyce states that they had the tendency to find the divine in all of created nature. Patrick brought Christianity to Ireland to transform the pagan people to monotheism. He wanted them to worship and love the one true God. Patrick adopted pagan practice to Christian tradition, for example, he changed the worship of the sun to the son. Patrick wanted the people to become monks and virgins for Christ. He advocated that true worship of God required to be newly baptised (converted from paganism to Christianity.) Patrick wanted the people to convert freely they were n ever compel as the decision to become a Christian had to come from the marrow.When Patrick left a place he made sure he left a building (church) to be used for communal worship. Like the Old Testament prophets, Patrick expected his ordained to be earnest role models to the people. unluckily in the Old Testament the religious leaders did not always do this. Ezekiel, for example, was to inform the people that God was going to hold the religious leaders responsible as they had led the people astray instead of encouraging them to worship only Yahweh. God told Ezekiel to prophesy to the leaders, shepherds have been cater themselves, should not, you the shepherds feed the sheep. In tandem with this, the prophet Elijah also had to deal with the people of Israels idolatry. He was aware that there was a lack of fast(a) love due to the people worshipping both Yahweh and Baal (god of fertility.) Elijah challenged the people nearly this saying, how coarse will you go limping with two different opinions?The people needful to stop worshipping both Yahweh and Baal and were to only worship the one true God, Yahweh. Elijah had smallish sympathy for the people worshipping both Gods. He challenged King Ahab to a battle on Mount Carmel between Yahweh and Baal to determine who the true God is. Elijah had a great victory as Yahweh won, usually this would be celebrated unless instead, Elijah went to Mount Horeb as he knew the peoples change of heart of Yahweh as the one true God was temporary and this was not good enough. True love of God was required. In line with this, Patrick also challenged the pagan peoples ways through their worship of Dagda and Lugh. It took a huge time for the pagan people to convert to truly worshipping one God. pagan religion continued to exist alongside early Christianity 100 years after(prenominal) Patrick.Amos spoke out about social injustices, he stated, let justice roll d experience like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream. Amos spoke about respect for marriage, something which King David lacked. He had an affair with Bathsheba and committed the sins of lust, adultery and make. He was punished for this as Yahweh was to raise up evil against you out of your own house. Davids son died as a result of his sins. Similarly, Patrick also showed a respect for life. He spoke out about injustices such as slavery and condemnation of wealth in his letter to Coroticus. Patrick respected women and this was reflected in the Letter to Coroticus.In L19 Patrick expresses his concern for women. The women were taken as captives, to be distributed as prizes. Patrick makes it clear that the fate of Coroticus and his men is to be lorded over for all timeless existence by those whom they regarded to be barbarian Irish. In L4, Patrick also speaks up against murder and slavery he grieves for those captured and killed and calls the perpetrators themselves captives of Satan the punishment met out to them will be exter nal life in hell.To conclude, Christianity is now one of the leading dry land religions and therefore the mission of both the prophets and Patrick was successful. There will always be a call for people to repent and convert to Christianity with a restitution to a moral life.